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2011 PERC Proceedings

Conference Information

Dates: August 3-4, 2011
Location: Omaha, NE
Theme: Frontiers in Assessment: Instrumentation, Goals & Practices

Proceedings Information

Editors: N. Sanjay Rebello, Paula V. Engelhardt, and Chandralekha Singh
Published: February 6, 2012
AIP URL: AIP Conference Proceedings 1413
Info: Single book; 414 pages; 8.5 X 11 inches, double column
ISBN: 978-0-7354-0990-3
ISSN (Print): 0094-243X
ISSN (Online): 1551-7616

The theme of the 2011 PER conference was "Frontiers in Assessment: Instrumentation, Goals & Practices." There were 228 attendees who participated in talks, poster sessions, workshops, and roundtable discussions. In addition to the papers addressing the theme there were also papers on a variety of topics in physics education research providing an annual snapshot of the field.

Readership: This conference proceedings would be of interest to faculty in Physics Departments both at four-year colleges as well as comprehensive universities.

Table of Contents

Front Matter
Preface
Invited Papers (23)
Peer-reviewed Papers (73)
Back Matter

INVITED MANUSCRIPTS (23)

First Author Index

Brookes · Caballero · Close · Coletta · Gire · Godshall · Holme · Kohl · Li · Lin · Loverude · Manogue · Price · Pyper · Rebello · Rundquist · Shepard · Singh · Teodorescu · Thompson · Wagner · Wittmann · Yerushalmi

Invited Papers

In search of alignment: Matching learning goals and class assessments
David T. Brookes and Eugenia Etkina
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 11-14, doi:10.1063/1.3679981
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Traditionally, the goals of physics courses focused more on helping our students master the normative physics knowledge and not so much the process through which this knowledge is constructed. We argue that the process itself is the heart of physics and cannot be separated from the outcome. In this paper, we suggest not only to rethink the goals of the courses but also to rethink the traditional paper and pencil tests. Specifically, we would like to show how the traditional summative assessments could be transformed to match our new learning goals. The work described in the paper is done in the context of ISLE - Investigative Science Learning Environment whose main goal is to connect the process of physics to the final knowledge by engaging students in the activities that mirror scientific practices while they are learning new normative knowledge.

D. T. Brookes and E. Etkina, In search of alignment: Matching learning goals and class assessments, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 11-14 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679981.

Fostering Computational Thinking In Introductory Mechanics
Marcos D. Caballero, Matthew A. Kohlmyer, and Michael F. Schatz
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 15-18, doi:10.1063/1.3679982
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Students taking introductory physics are rarely exposed to computational modeling. In a one-semester large lecture introductory calculus-based mechanics course at Georgia Tech, students learned to solve physics problems using the VPython programming environment. During the term 1357 students in this course solved a suite of fourteen computational modeling homework questions delivered using an online commercial course management system. Their proficiency with computational modeling was evaluated in a proctored environment using a novel central force problem. The majority of students (60.4%) successfully completed the evaluation. Analysis of erroneous student-submitted programs indicated that a small set of student errors explained why most programs failed. We discuss the design and implementation of the computational modeling homework and evaluation, the results from the evaluation and the implications for instruction in computational modeling in introductory STEM courses.

M. D. Caballero, M. A. Kohlmyer, and M. F. Schatz, Fostering Computational Thinking In Introductory Mechanics, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 15-18 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679982.

Development Of Proximal Formative Assessment Skills In Video-based Teacher Professional Development
Eleanor W. Close, Rachel E. Scherr, Hunter G. Close, and Sarah B. McKagan
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 19-22, doi:10.1063/1.3679983
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Developing skills for proximal formative assessment is a primary goal of the academic-year professional development course offered by the Energy Project at SPU. We have adapted a video club model (Sherin & Han, 2004) in which groups of teachers watch and discuss video of classroom interactions. In this paper, we use a framework developed by Sherin & Han to analyze teacher reasoning about student understanding in an episode of video from our course. Teachers in the video use evidence from student interactions to propose general models of student thinking about energy. Our analysis suggests that the video-based professional development supports teachers in developing their professional vision for teaching: practicing the selective attention to and reasoning about evidence of student understanding that is required for proximal formative assessment.

E. W. Close, R. E. Scherr, H. G. Close, and S. B. McKagan, Development Of Proximal Formative Assessment Skills In Video-based Teacher Professional Development, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 19-22 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679983.

FCI normalized gain, scientific reasoning ability, thinking in physics, and gender effects
Vincent P. Coletta, Jeffery A. Phillips, and Jeffery J. Steinert
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 23-26, doi:10.1063/1.3679984
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We observe no significant effect of gender on grades in our IE introductory mechanics courses at Loyola Marymount University, but we do observe a significant gender gap on FCI normalized gains, with males achieving higher gains than females. Over the past three years, FCI gains have improved for both male and female students in IE classes taught with the Thinking in Physics (TIP) pedagogy. However, a gender gap on FCI gains remains, even when scientific reasoning abilities are taken into account. Indeed, the gap appears much greater for students with the strongest scientific reasoning skills and the highest FCI gains. Data from IE introductory physics courses using modeling at Edward Little High School in Maine show a similar result with some additional data showing a reverse gender gap for those students with very weak scientific reasoning skills.

V. P. Coletta, J. A. Phillips, and J. J. Steinert, FCI normalized gain, scientific reasoning ability, thinking in physics, and gender effects, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 23-26 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679984.

Graphical representations of vector functions in upper-division E&M
Elizabeth Gire and Edward Price
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 27-30, doi:10.1063/1.3679985
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In upper division electricity and magnetism, the manipulation and interpretation of vector functions is pervasive and a significant challenge to students. At CSU San Marcos, using in-class activities adapted from the Oregon State University Paradigms in Physics Curriculum, students’ difficulties with vector functions become evident in two types of in-class activities: sketching vector functions and relating vector and scalar functions (e.g., electric field and electric potential). For many students, the cause of these difficulties is a failure to fully distinguish between the components of a vector function and its coordinate variables. To address this difficulty, we implement an additional in-class activity requiring students to translate between graphical and algebraic representations of vector functions. We present our experience with these issues, how to address them, and how in-class activities can provide evidence of student thinking that facilitates curricular refinement.

E. Gire and E. Price, Graphical representations of vector functions in upper-division E&M, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 27-30 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679985.

Implementation of phased-array homework: Assessment and focused understanding
Stacy H. Godshall
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 31-34, doi:10.1063/1.3679986
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Students demonstrate different levels of understanding of material which often coincide with how diligent the students are with their daily preparation for class. Having students attempt homework problems prior to class enables them to be better prepared to ask specific questions about concepts and to perform on exams, as well as to develop as self learners. This paper will introduce "phased-array homework" that is a flexible system of assigning homework. In addition, this paper discusses resources for students that provide a scaffold for completing this type of homework. As the name of the homework system implies, phased-array homework (PAH) allows an instructor to shape and steer student understanding in much the same way that a phased-array antenna allows for the shaping and steering of a transmitted electromagnetic signal to yield its subsequent effective radiation pattern. Implementation method and results will be presented as well as student perspective on the system.

S. H. Godshall, Implementation of phased-array homework: Assessment and focused understanding, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 31-34 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679986.

ACS Exams as an Example of Scholarship-based Assessment in a Discipline
Thomas A. Holme and Megan L. Grunert
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 35-38, doi:10.1063/1.3679987
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The Examinations Institute of the American Chemical Society has been producing norm-referenced exams for over 75 years and these efforts are reviewed here. The process by which exam-writing committees produce these exams involves both the setting of the content and trial testing of items prior to establishing the released exam. Beyond this process, the Institute has engaged in research based on data derived from various tests.

T. A. Holme and M. L. Grunert, ACS Exams as an Example of Scholarship-based Assessment in a Discipline, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 35-38 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679987.

Promoting and Assessing Creativity and Innovation in Physics Undergraduates
Patrick B. Kohl , H. Vincent Kuo, Susan Kowalski, and Frank Kowalski
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 39-42, doi:10.1063/1.3679988
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Creative thought and the ability to innovate are critical skills in industrial and academic careers alike. There exist attempts to foster creative skills in the business world, but little such work has been documented in a physics context. In particular, there are few tools available for those who want to assess the creativity of their physics students, making it difficult to tell whether instruction is having any effect. In this paper, we outline a new elective course at the Colorado School of Mines in the physics department designed to develop creativity and innovation in physics majors. We present our efforts to assess this course formatively, using tablet PCs and InkSurvey software, and summatively using the discipline-independent Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. We also describe early work towards developing a physics-specific instrument for measuring creativity.

P. B. Kohl, H. V. Kuo, S. Kowalski, and F. Kowalski, Promoting and Assessing Creativity and Innovation in Physics Undergraduates, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 39-42 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679988.

Developing a magnetism conceptual survey and assessing gender differences in student understanding of magnetism
Jing Li and Chandralekha Singh
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 43-46, doi:10.1063/1.3679989
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We discuss the development of a research-based conceptual multiple-choice survey of magnetism. We also discuss the use of the survey to investigate gender differences in students' difficulties with concepts related to magnetism. We find that while there was no gender difference on the pre-test. However, female students performed significantly worse than male students when the survey was given as a post-test in traditionally taught calculus-based introductory physics courses with similar results in both the regular and honors versions of the course. In the algebra-based courses, the performance of female and male students has no statistical difference on the pre-test or the post-test.

J. Li and C. Singh, Developing a magnetism conceptual survey and assessing gender differences in student understanding of magnetism, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 43-46 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679989.

Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?
Shih-Yin Lin and Chandralekha Singh
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 47-50, doi:10.1063/1.3679990
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We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

S. Lin and C. Singh, Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 47-50 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679990.

Assessment to complement research-based instruction in upper-level physics courses
Michael E. Loverude
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 51-54, doi:10.1063/1.3679991
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Traditional upper-division physics courses tend to focus on summative assessment through quantitative and symbolic problem-solving examination questions. Reforming instruction suggests the need for assessment that matches the instructional strategies. In this paper, we describe assessment strategies implemented in two physics core courses, thermal physics and mathematical methods. Strategies include frequent formative assessment in the form of written ungraded quizzes as well as the inclusion of qualitative written problems on graded quizzes and exams. Examples of assessment items and student responses will be shown. In particular, we will show evidence that students at this level respond more positively to 'pretests' than one might expect, suggesting more expert-like epistemological expectations than is often the case in the introductory course.

M. E. Loverude, Assessment to complement research-based instruction in upper-level physics courses, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 51-54 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679991.

Representations for a spins-first approach to quantum mechanics
Corinne A. Manogue, Elizabeth Gire, David McIntyre, and Janet Tate
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 55-58, doi:10.1063/1.3679992
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In the Paradigms in Physics Curriculum at Oregon State University, we take a spins-first approach to quantum mechanics using a java simulation of successive Stern-Gerlach experiments to explore the postulates. The experimental schematic is a diagrammatic representation that we use throughout our discussion of quantum measurements. With a spins-first approach, it is natural to start with Dirac bra-ket language for states, observables, and projection operators. We also use explicit matrix representations of operators and ask students to translate between the Dirac and matrix languages. The projection of the state onto a basis is represented with a histogram. When we subsequently introduce wave functions, the wave function attains a natural interpretation as the continuous limit of these discrete histograms or a projection of a Dirac ket onto position or momentum eigenstates. We are able to test the students' facility with moving between these representations in later modules.

C. A. Manogue, E. Gire, D. McIntyre, and J. Tate, Representations for a spins-first approach to quantum mechanics, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 55-58 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679992.

Complex Interactions between Formative Assessment, Technology, and Classroom Practices
Edward Price
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 59-62, doi:10.1063/1.3679993
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Interactive engagement (IE) methods provide instructors with evidence of student thinking that can guide instructional decisions across a range of timescales: facilitating an activity, determining the flow of activities, or modifying the curriculum. Thus, from the instructor's perspective, IE activities can function as formative assessments. As a practical matter, the ability to utilize this potential depends on how the activities are implemented. This paper describes different tools for small group problem solving, including whiteboards, Tablet PCs, digital cameras, and photo-sharing websites. These tools provide the instructor with varying levels of access to student work during and after class, and therefore provide a range of support for formative assessment. Furthermore, the tools differ in physical size, ease of use, and the roles for students and instructor. These differences lead to complex, often surprising interactions with classroom practices.

E. Price, Complex Interactions between Formative Assessment, Technology, and Classroom Practices, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 59-62 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679993.

Changing Scientific Reasoning and Conceptual Understanding in College Students
Brian A. Pyper
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 63-65, doi:10.1063/1.3679994
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Data from several years and several different classes have shown that Lawson test scores do not change much over the course of a single semester and are strongly correlated with FCI gains. So what does change Lawson scores? We have new data that we think shows that more interaction with materials that demand reasoning (and not just clicker questions and end of chapter Homework problems) improves reasoning ability and subsequently conceptual development.

B. A. Pyper, Changing Scientific Reasoning and Conceptual Understanding in College Students, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 63-65 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679994.

Comparing students' performance on research-based conceptual assessments and traditional classroom assessments
N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 66-68, doi:10.1063/1.3679995
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The use of concept inventories to investigate students' learning gains is common in physics education research. However, comparatively little research has compared students' learning gains on concept inventories with other more traditional assessments in the classroom. We present a study comparing second semester calculus-based physics students' performance on traditional classroom assessments including exams and homework with learning gains on SEMCO (Survey of Electricity, Magnetism, Circuits and Optics), which was previously created by combining questions on other conceptual surveys such as CSEM and DIRECT. We report on students' performance on specific items on SEMCO and corresponding traditional classroom assessments that are based on the same topic. Our results indicate that while the overall performance on SEMCO might correlate with aggregate performance on class exams, the performance on clusters of SEMCO items that assess conceptual understanding in various topical areas does not correlate as strongly with performance on corresponding traditional exams. These results raise some potentially interesting issues on the validity and usefulness of traditional classroom assessments and conceptual assessments that are often used to measure student learning in introductory physics.

N. S. Rebello, Comparing students' performance on research-based conceptual assessments and traditional classroom assessments, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 66-68 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679995.

Standards-based grading with voice: Listening for students' understanding
Andy Rundquist
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 69-72, doi:10.1063/1.3679996
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Standards-based grading is gaining popularity at the high school level, including physics courses. The basic notion is to give your students a list of objectives upfront that they need to master. Students can reassess often and their final grade is determined solely by their last reassessment on each standard. It is the instructor's job to help students find ways of showing their mastery to you. I implemented this in a junior-level mechanics course where the small numbers allowed me to introduce a novel twist: all assessments had to include the student's voice. This meant that students turned in pencasts, screencasts, and in-person assessments. Several days were also set aside for collaborative oral assessments, where students offered up honest advice and scores were mutually determined. In this paper, I'll share my experience trying out this pedagogical experiment and try to convey how it has improved my own understanding of my students' understanding.

A. Rundquist, Standards-based grading with voice: Listening for students' understanding, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 69-72 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679996.

Assessment lessons from K-12 education research: Knowledge representation, learning, and motivation
Lorrie A. Shepard
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 73-76, doi:10.1063/1.3679997
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Research on teaching to the test in K-12 settings has documented the lack of generalized understanding of underlying principles in tested subjects. This is similar to the experience of physics students who can complete computational problems without conceptual understanding. The PER community is well aware of the importance of explicit representations of learning goals as well as the role of the formative assessment process, especially feedback and self assessment, in promoting or deterring students' engagement and willingness to take responsibility for their own learning. Key principles from socio-cultural learning theory and research on motivation are summarized and used to identify instructional and assessment practices that hold the most promise for engaging students in developing deep conceptual understanding.

L. A. Shepard, Assessment lessons from K-12 education research: Knowledge representation, learning, and motivation, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 73-76 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679997.

Improving students' understanding of quantum mechanics by using peer instruction tools
Chandralekha Singh and Guangtian Zhu
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 77-80, doi:10.1063/1.3679998
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Quantum mechanics is a challenging subject, even for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Here, we discuss the development and evaluation of research-based concept tests for peer instruction as a formative assessment tool in quantum mechanics (QM) courses. The preliminary evaluations show that these tools are effective in helping students develop a good grasp of quantum mechanics.

C. Singh and G. Zhu, Improving students' understanding of quantum mechanics by using peer instruction tools, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 77-80 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679998.

When students can choose easy, medium, or hard homework problems
Raluca E. Teodorescu, Daniel T. Seaton, Caroline N. Cardamone, Saif Rayyan, Jonathan E. Abbott, Analia Barrantes, Andrew Pawl, and David E. Pritchard
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 81-84, doi:10.1063/1.3679999
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We investigate student-chosen, multi-level homework in our Integrated Learning Environment for Mechanics built using the LON-CAPA open-source learning system. Multi-level refers to problems categorized as easy, medium, and hard. Problem levels were determined a priori based on the knowledge needed to solve them. We analyze these problems using three measures: time-per-problem, LON-CAPA difficulty, and item difficulty measured by item response theory. Our analysis of student behavior in this environment suggests that time-per-problem is strongly dependent on problem category, unlike either score-based measures. We also found trends in student choice of problems, overall effort, and efficiency across the student population. Allowing students choice in problem solving seems to improve their motivation; 70% of students worked additional problems for which no credit was given.

R. E. Teodorescu, D. T. Seaton, C. N. Cardamone, S. Rayyan, J. E. Abbott, A. Barrantes, A. Pawl, and D. E. Pritchard, When students can choose easy, medium, or hard homework problems, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 81-84 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679999.

Representations of partial derivatives in thermodynamics
John R. Thompson, Corinne A. Manogue, David J. Roundy, and Donald B. Mountcastle
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 85-88, doi:10.1063/1.3680000
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One of the mathematical objects that students become familiar with in thermodynamics, often for the first time, is the partial derivative of a multivariable function. The symbolic representation of a partial derivative and related quantities present difficulties for students in both mathematical and physical contexts, most notably what it means to keep one or more variables fixed while taking the derivative with respect to a different variable. Material properties are themselves written as partial derivatives of various state functions (e.g., compressibility is a partial derivative of volume with respect to pressure). Research in courses at the University of Maine and Oregon State University yields findings related to the many ways that partial derivatives can be represented and interpreted in thermodynamics. Research has informed curricular development that elicits many of the difficulties using different representations (e.g., geometric) and different contexts (e.g., connecting partial derivatives to specific experiments).

J. R. Thompson, C. A. Manogue, D. J. Roundy, and D. B. Mountcastle, Representations of partial derivatives in thermodynamics, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 85-88 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680000.

Representation issues: Using mathematics in upper-division physics
Joseph F. Wagner, Corinne A. Manogue, and John R. Thompson
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 89-92, doi:10.1063/1.3680001
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Upper-division students must learn to apply sophisticated mathematics from algebra, limits, calculus, multivariable and vector calculus, linear algebra, complex variables, and ordinary and partial differential equations. The presenters in this session will discuss how the representations that we choose may affect whether students are able to use this mathematics spontaneously and correctly, whether they can move smoothly between representations, and the extent to which their understanding of the mathematics enhances their understanding of the physics. The discussant will incorporate the perspective of research in undergraduate mathematics education as it applies to the representations that have been presented.

J. F. Wagner, C. A. Manogue, and J. R. Thompson, Representation issues: Using mathematics in upper-division physics, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 89-92 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680001.

When basic changes to a solution suggest meaningful differences in mathematics
Michael C. Wittmann and Katrina E. Black
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 93-96, doi:10.1063/1.3680002
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When solving two integrals arising from the separation of variables in a first order linear differential equation, students have multiple correct choices for how to proceed. They might set limits on both integrals or use integration constants on both or only one equation. In each case, the physical meaning of the mathematics is equivalent. But, how students choose to represent the mathematics can tell us much about what they are thinking. We observe students debating how to integrate the quantity dt. One student seeks a general function that works for everyone, and does not wish to specify the value of the integration constant. Another student seeks a function consistent with the specific physics problem. They compromise by using a constant, undefined in value for one student, zero in value for the other.

M. C. Wittmann and K. E. Black, When basic changes to a solution suggest meaningful differences in mathematics, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 93-96 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680002.

The group administered interactive questionnaire: An alternative to individual interviews
Edit Yerushalmi, Charles R. Henderson, William Mamudi, Chandralekha Singh, and Shih-Yin Lin
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 97-100, doi:10.1063/1.3680003
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Individual interviews are often considered to be the gold standard for researchers to understand how people think about phenomena. However, conducting and analyzing interviews is very time consuming. This paper presents the Group Administered Interactive Questionnaire (GAIQ) as an alternative to individual interviews and discusses the pros and cons of each data collection method. Use of GAIQ will be discussed in the context of a study that seeks to understand teaching assistants' reasons for the design of problem solutions for introductory physics.

E. Yerushalmi, C. R. Henderson, W. Mamudi, C. Singh, and S. Lin, The group administered interactive questionnaire: An alternative to individual interviews, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 97-100 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680003.

PEER REVIEWED MANUSCRIPTS (73)

First Author Index

Alvarado · Baily · Bajracharya · Barniol · Barr · Bates · Belleau · Brookes · Cardamone · Chasteen · Chini · Close · Corpuz · Crouch · Dancy · DeBeck · Dietz · Ding · Dreyfus · Duda · Durden · Foster · Gire · Gray · Harrer · Hawkins · Henderson · Hu · Ibrahim · Iverson · Khan · Kost-Smith · Kuo · Lee · Li · Lin · Lung · Maries · Martinuk · Haghanikar · McBride · McKagan · Nakamura · Pawl · Pepper · Perkins · Podolefsky · Pollock · Rebello · Rodriguez · Rosengrant · Ross · Rouinfar · Sanchez · Sawtelle · Scherr · Severance · Singh · Slaughter · Spike · Stephanik · Turpen · Van Dusen · Von Korff · Wittmann · Zhu · Zwickl

Peer-reviewed Papers

Expectancy violation in physics and mathematics classes in a student-centered classroom
Carolina Alvarado, Angeles Dominguez, Ruth Rodriguez, and Genaro Zavala
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 103-106, doi:10.1063/1.3680004
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Interpretive Themes in Quantum Physics: Curriculum Development and Outcomes
Charles Baily and Noah D. Finkelstein
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 107-110, doi:10.1063/1.3680005
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Student Interpretation of the Signs of Definite Integrals Using Graphical Representations
Rabindra R. Bajracharya, Thomas M. Wemyss, and John R. Thompson
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 111-114, doi:10.1063/1.3680006
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Students' difficulties with unit vectors and scalar multiplication of a vector
Pablo Barniol
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 115-118, doi:10.1063/1.3680007
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Using Artifact Methodology to Compare Learning Assistants’ and Colleagues’ Classroom Practices
Stephanie A. Barr, Michael J. Ross, and Valerie K. Otero
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 119-122, doi:10.1063/1.3680008
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Student-generated content: Using PeerWise to enhance engagement and outcomes in introductory physics courses
Simon P. Bates, Ross K. Galloway, and Karon L. McBride
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 123-126, doi:10.1063/1.3680009
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Implementation of physics and everyday thinking in a high school classroom: Concepts and argumentation
Shelly N. Belleau, Michael J. Ross, and Valerie K. Otero
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 127-130, doi:10.1063/1.3680010
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Designing a physics learning environment: A holistic approach
David T. Brookes and Yuhfen Lin
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 131-134, doi:10.1063/1.3680011
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Item response theory analysis of the mechanics baseline test
Caroline N. Cardamone, Jonathan E. Abbott, Saif Rayyan, Daniel T. Seaton, Andrew Pawl, and David E. Pritchard
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 135-138, doi:10.1063/1.3680012
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But Does It Last? Sustaining a Research-Based Curriculum in Upper-Division Electricity & Magnetism
Stephanie Chasteen, Rachel E. Pepper, Steven J. Pollock, and Katherine K. Perkins
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 139-142, doi:10.1063/1.3680014
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Teasing out the effect of tutorials via multiple regression
Stephanie Chasteen
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 143-146, doi:10.1063/1.3680015
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What do students learn about work in physical and virtual experiments with inclined planes?
Jacquelyn J. Chini, Adrian M. Madsen, N. Sanjay Rebello, and Sadhana Puntambekar
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 147-150, doi:10.1063/1.3680016
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Differentiation of energy concepts through speech and gesture in interaction
Hunter G. Close and Rachel E. Scherr
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 151-154, doi:10.1063/1.3680017
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The use of PDAs as classroom interaction system: Instructors' perspective
Edgar D. Corpuz, Ma. Aileen A. Corpuz, and Mary A. Moriarty
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 155-158, doi:10.1063/1.3680018
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Teaching physics to life science students - Examining the role of biological context
Catherine H. Crouch and Kenneth Heller
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 159-162, doi:10.1063/1.3680019
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Experiences of new faculty implementing research-based instructional strategies
Melissa H. Dancy and Charles R. Henderson
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 163-166, doi:10.1063/1.3680020
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Teaching assistant-student interactions in a modified SCALE-UP classroom
George DeBeck and Dedra Demaree
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 167-170, doi:10.1063/1.3680021
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Gender bias in the force concept inventory?
R. D. Dietz, R. H. Pearson, M. R. Semak, and C. W. Willis
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 171-174, doi:10.1063/1.3680022
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Applying Rasch theory to evaluate the construct validity of brief electricity and magnetism assessment
Lin Ding
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 175-178, doi:10.1063/1.3680023
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Student views of macroscopic and microscopic energy in physics and biology
Benjamin W. Dreyfus, Edward F. Redish, and Jessica Watkins
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 179-182, doi:10.1063/1.3680024
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Problem-based learning in upper division courses: Student successes, perceptions, and reactions
Gintaras Duda and James Ross
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 183-186, doi:10.1063/1.3680025
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"Implicit action": Understanding discourse management in modeling instruction
Jared Durden, Eric Brewe, and Laird H. Kramer
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 187-190, doi:10.1063/1.3680026
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Developing an energy assessment for elementary education majors
Thomas M. Foster and Daniel Barnett
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 191-194, doi:10.1063/1.3680027
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Making sense of quantum operators, eigenstates and quantum measurements
Elizabeth Gire and Corinne A. Manogue
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 195-198, doi:10.1063/1.3680028
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Effects of the learning assistant experience on in-service teachers' practices
Kara E. Gray, David C. Webb, and Valerie K. Otero
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 199-202, doi:10.1063/1.3680029
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Elements of proximal formative assessment in learners' discourse about energy
Benedikt W. Harrer, Rachel E. Scherr, Michael C. Wittmann, Hunter G. Close, and Brian W. Frank
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 203-206, doi:10.1063/1.3680030
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Probing Student Understanding with Alternative Questioning Strategies
Jeffrey M. Hawkins, Brian W. Frank, John R. Thompson, Michael C. Wittmann, and Thomas M. Wemyss
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 207-210, doi:10.1063/1.3680031
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Physics Education Research funding census
Charles R. Henderson, Ramón S. Barthelemy, Noah D. Finkelstein, and Jose P. Mestre
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 211-214, doi:10.1063/1.3680032
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Scaffolding students' application of the 'area under a curve' concept in physics problems
Dehui Hu, Joshua S. Von Korff, and N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 215-218, doi:10.1063/1.3680033
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Using Johnson-Laird's cognitive framework of sense-making to characterize engineering students' mental representations in kinematics
Bashirah Ibrahim and N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 219-222, doi:10.1063/1.3680034
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Understanding the Variable Effect of Instructional Innovations on Student Learning
Heidi L. Iverson
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 223-226, doi:10.1063/1.3680035
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Assessing students' ability to solve introductory physics problems using integrals in symbolic and graphical representations
Neelam Khan, Dehui Hu, Dong-Hai Nguyen, and N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 227-230, doi:10.1063/1.3680036
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Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges
Lauren E. Kost-Smith, Steven J. Pollock, Noah D. Finkelstein, Geoffrey L. Cohen, Tiffany A. Ito, and Akira Miyake
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 231-234, doi:10.1063/1.3680037
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Socratic Dialogs and Clicker use in an Upper-Division Mechanics Course
H. Vincent Kuo, Patrick B. Kohl , and Lincoln D. Carr
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 235-238, doi:10.1063/1.3680038
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Successes and constraints in the enactment of a reform
May Lee, Melissa H. Dancy, Charles R. Henderson, and Eric Brewe
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 239-242, doi:10.1063/1.3680039
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Students' difficulties with equations involving circuit elements
Jing Li and Chandralekha Singh
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 243-246, doi:10.1063/1.3680040
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Assessing Physics Learning Identity: Survey Development and Validation
Sissi L. Li and Dedra Demaree
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 247-250, doi:10.1063/1.3680041
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Using Analogical Problem Solving with Different Scaffolding Supports to Learn about Friction
Shih-Yin Lin and Chandralekha Singh
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 251-254, doi:10.1063/1.3680042
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TA-designed vs. research-oriented problem solutions
Shih-Yin Lin, Chandralekha Singh, William Mamudi, Charles R. Henderson, and Edit Yerushalmi
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 255-258, doi:10.1063/1.3680043
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The effect of immigration status on physics identity and physical science career intentions
Florin D. Lung, Geoff Potvin, Gerhard Sonnert, and Philip M. Sadler
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 259-262, doi:10.1063/1.3680044
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Should students be provided diagrams or asked to draw them while solving introductory physics problems?
Alexandru Maries and Chandralekha Singh
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 263-266, doi:10.1063/1.3680045
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Do prescribed prompts prime sensemaking during group problem solving?
Mathew "Sandy" Martinuk and Joss Ives
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 267-270, doi:10.1063/1.3680046
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Evidence of students' content reasoning in relation to measure of reform
Mojgan Matloob Haghanikar, Sytil K. Murphy, and Dean A. Zollman
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 271-274, doi:10.1063/1.3680047
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Student Views of Similarity between Math and Physics Problems
Dyan L. McBride
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 275-278, doi:10.1063/1.3680048
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Criteria for Creating and Categorizing Forms of Energy
Sarah B. McKagan, Rachel E. Scherr, Eleanor W. Close, and Hunter G. Close
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 279-282, doi:10.1063/1.3680049
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Finding meaningful search features for automated analysis of short responses to conceptual questions
Christopher M. Nakamura, Sytil K. Murphy, Michael Christel, Scott M. Stevens, and Dean A. Zollman
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 283-286, doi:10.1063/1.3680050
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Development of a Mechanics Reasoning Inventory
Andrew Pawl, Analia Barrantes, Caroline N. Cardamone, Saif Rayyan, and David E. Pritchard
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 287-290, doi:10.1063/1.3680051
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Facilitating Faculty Conversations: Development of Consensus Learning Goals
Rachel E. Pepper, Stephanie Chasteen, Steven J. Pollock, and Katherine K. Perkins
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 291-294, doi:10.1063/1.3680052
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Towards research-based strategies for using PhET simulations in middle school physical science classes
Katherine K. Perkins, Emily Moore, Noah S. Podolefsky, Kelly Lancaster, and Christine Denison
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 295-298, doi:10.1063/1.3680053
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Context Dependence of Teacher Practices in Middle School Science
Noah S. Podolefsky and Katherine K. Perkins
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 299-302, doi:10.1063/1.3680054
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Issues and Progress in Transforming a Middle-division Classical Mechanics/Math Methods Course
Steven J. Pollock, Rachel E. Pepper, and Alysia D. Marino
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 303-306, doi:10.1063/1.3680055
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Multiple roles of assessment in upper-division physics course reforms
Steven J. Pollock, Rachel E. Pepper, Stephanie Chasteen, and Katherine K. Perkins
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 307-310, doi:10.1063/1.3680056
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Adapting a theoretical framework for characterizing students' use of equations in physics problem solving
Carina M. Rebello and N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 311-314, doi:10.1063/1.3680057
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How accurately can students estimate their performance on an exam and how does this relate to their actual performance on the exam?
N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 315-318, doi:10.1063/1.3680058
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Communicating scientific ideas: One element of physics expertise
Idaykis Rodriguez, Renee Michelle Goertzen, Eric Brewe, and Laird H. Kramer
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 319-322, doi:10.1063/1.3680059
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Following Student Gaze Patterns in Physical Science Lectures
David Rosengrant, Doug Hearrington, Kerriann Alvarado, and Danielle Keeble
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 323-326, doi:10.1063/1.3680060
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Teacher-driven professional development and the pursuit of a sophisticated understanding of inquiry
Michael J. Ross, Ben Van Dusen, Samson Sherman, and Valerie K. Otero
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 327-330, doi:10.1063/1.3680061
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Comparing the development of students' conceptions of pulleys using physical and virtual manipulatives
Amy Rouinfar, Adrian M. Madsen, Tram Do Ngoc Hoang, Sadhana Puntambekar, and N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 331-334, doi:10.1063/1.3680062
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Further investigation of examining students understanding of Lenz's law and Faraday's law
Casey W. Sanchez and Michael E. Loverude
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 335-338, doi:10.1063/1.3680063
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Creating Opportunities to Influence Self-Efficacy through Modeling Instruction
Vashti Sawtelle, Eric Brewe, Renee Michelle Goertzen, and Laird H. Kramer
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 339-342, doi:10.1063/1.3680064
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Intuitive ontologies for energy in physics
Rachel E. Scherr, Hunter G. Close, and Sarah B. McKagan
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 343-346, doi:10.1063/1.3680065
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Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse
Rachel E. Scherr, Hunter G. Close, and Sarah B. McKagan
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 347-350, doi:10.1063/1.3680066
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What are the effects of self-assessment preparation in a middle school science classroom?
Sara E. Severance
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 351-354, doi:10.1063/1.3680067
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Students' understanding of the addition of angular momentum
Chandralekha Singh and Guangtian Zhu
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 355-358, doi:10.1063/1.3680068
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A longitudinal study of the development of attitudes and beliefs towards physics
Katherine A. Slaughter, Simon P. Bates, and Ross K. Galloway
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 359-362, doi:10.1063/1.3680069
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Toward an Analytic Framework of Physics Teaching Assistants’ Pedagogical Knowledge
Benjamin T. Spike and Noah D. Finkelstein
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 363-366, doi:10.1063/1.3680070
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Examining student ability to interpret and use potential energy diagrams for classical systems
Brian M. Stephanik and Peter S. Shaffer
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 367-370, doi:10.1063/1.3680071
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Faculty Perspectives about Instructor and Institutional Assessments of Teaching Effectiveness
Chandra Turpen, Charles R. Henderson, and Melissa H. Dancy
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 371-374, doi:10.1063/1.3680072
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Changing Roles and Identities in a Teacher-Driven Professional Development Community
Ben Van Dusen and Valerie K. Otero
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 375-378, doi:10.1063/1.3680073
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Assessment of vertical transfer in problem solving: Mapping the problem design space
Joshua S. Von Korff, Dehui Hu, and N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 379-382, doi:10.1063/1.3680074
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Evidence of embodied cognition about wave propagation
Michael C. Wittmann and Evan A. Chase
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 383-386, doi:10.1063/1.3680075
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Students' Difficulties with Quantum Measurement
Guangtian Zhu and Chandralekha Singh
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 387-390, doi:10.1063/1.3680076
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Transforming the advanced lab: Part I - Learning goals
Benjamin M. Zwickl, Noah D. Finkelstein, and H. J. Lewandowski
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 391-394, doi:10.1063/1.3680077
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