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2011 PERC Proceedings

Conference Information

Dates: August 3-4, 2011
Location: Omaha, NE
Theme: Frontiers in Assessment: Instrumentation, Goals & Practices

Proceedings Information

Editors: N. Sanjay Rebello, Paula V. Engelhardt, and Chandralekha Singh
Published: February 6, 2012
AIP URL: AIP Conference Proceedings 1413
Info: Single book; 414 pages; 8.5 X 11 inches, double column
ISBN: 978-0-7354-0990-3
ISSN (Print): 0094-243X
ISSN (Online): 1551-7616

The theme of the 2011 PER conference was "Frontiers in Assessment: Instrumentation, Goals & Practices." There were 228 attendees who participated in talks, poster sessions, workshops, and roundtable discussions. In addition to the papers addressing the theme there were also papers on a variety of topics in physics education research providing an annual snapshot of the field.

Readership: This conference proceedings would be of interest to faculty in Physics Departments both at four-year colleges as well as comprehensive universities.

Table of Contents

Front Matter
Preface
Invited Papers (23)
Peer-reviewed Papers (73)
Back Matter

INVITED MANUSCRIPTS (23)

First Author Index

Brookes · Caballero · Close · Coletta · Gire · Godshall · Holme · Kohl · Li · Lin · Loverude · Manogue · Price · Pyper · Rebello · Rundquist · Shepard · Singh · Teodorescu · Thompson · Wagner · Wittmann · Yerushalmi

Invited Papers

In search of alignment: Matching learning goals and class assessments
David T. Brookes and Eugenia Etkina
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 11-14, doi:10.1063/1.3679981
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Traditionally, the goals of physics courses focused more on helping our students master the normative physics knowledge and not so much the process through which this knowledge is constructed. We argue that the process itself is the heart of physics and cannot be separated from the outcome. In this paper, we suggest not only to rethink the goals of the courses but also to rethink the traditional paper and pencil tests. Specifically, we would like to show how the traditional summative assessments could be transformed to match our new learning goals. The work described in the paper is done in the context of ISLE - Investigative Science Learning Environment whose main goal is to connect the process of physics to the final knowledge by engaging students in the activities that mirror scientific practices while they are learning new normative knowledge.

D. T. Brookes and E. Etkina, In search of alignment: Matching learning goals and class assessments, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 11-14 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679981.

Fostering Computational Thinking In Introductory Mechanics
Marcos D. Caballero, Matthew A. Kohlmyer, and Michael F. Schatz
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 15-18, doi:10.1063/1.3679982
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Students taking introductory physics are rarely exposed to computational modeling. In a one-semester large lecture introductory calculus-based mechanics course at Georgia Tech, students learned to solve physics problems using the VPython programming environment. During the term 1357 students in this course solved a suite of fourteen computational modeling homework questions delivered using an online commercial course management system. Their proficiency with computational modeling was evaluated in a proctored environment using a novel central force problem. The majority of students (60.4%) successfully completed the evaluation. Analysis of erroneous student-submitted programs indicated that a small set of student errors explained why most programs failed. We discuss the design and implementation of the computational modeling homework and evaluation, the results from the evaluation and the implications for instruction in computational modeling in introductory STEM courses.

M. D. Caballero, M. A. Kohlmyer, and M. F. Schatz, Fostering Computational Thinking In Introductory Mechanics, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 15-18 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679982.

Development Of Proximal Formative Assessment Skills In Video-based Teacher Professional Development
Eleanor W. Close, Rachel E. Scherr, Hunter G. Close, and Sarah B. McKagan
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 19-22, doi:10.1063/1.3679983
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Developing skills for proximal formative assessment is a primary goal of the academic-year professional development course offered by the Energy Project at SPU. We have adapted a video club model (Sherin & Han, 2004) in which groups of teachers watch and discuss video of classroom interactions. In this paper, we use a framework developed by Sherin & Han to analyze teacher reasoning about student understanding in an episode of video from our course. Teachers in the video use evidence from student interactions to propose general models of student thinking about energy. Our analysis suggests that the video-based professional development supports teachers in developing their professional vision for teaching: practicing the selective attention to and reasoning about evidence of student understanding that is required for proximal formative assessment.

E. W. Close, R. E. Scherr, H. G. Close, and S. B. McKagan, Development Of Proximal Formative Assessment Skills In Video-based Teacher Professional Development, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 19-22 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679983.

FCI normalized gain, scientific reasoning ability, thinking in physics, and gender effects
Vincent P. Coletta, Jeffery A. Phillips, and Jeffery J. Steinert
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 23-26, doi:10.1063/1.3679984
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We observe no significant effect of gender on grades in our IE introductory mechanics courses at Loyola Marymount University, but we do observe a significant gender gap on FCI normalized gains, with males achieving higher gains than females. Over the past three years, FCI gains have improved for both male and female students in IE classes taught with the Thinking in Physics (TIP) pedagogy. However, a gender gap on FCI gains remains, even when scientific reasoning abilities are taken into account. Indeed, the gap appears much greater for students with the strongest scientific reasoning skills and the highest FCI gains. Data from IE introductory physics courses using modeling at Edward Little High School in Maine show a similar result with some additional data showing a reverse gender gap for those students with very weak scientific reasoning skills.

V. P. Coletta, J. A. Phillips, and J. J. Steinert, FCI normalized gain, scientific reasoning ability, thinking in physics, and gender effects, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 23-26 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679984.

Graphical representations of vector functions in upper-division E&M
Elizabeth Gire and Edward Price
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 27-30, doi:10.1063/1.3679985
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In upper division electricity and magnetism, the manipulation and interpretation of vector functions is pervasive and a significant challenge to students. At CSU San Marcos, using in-class activities adapted from the Oregon State University Paradigms in Physics Curriculum, students’ difficulties with vector functions become evident in two types of in-class activities: sketching vector functions and relating vector and scalar functions (e.g., electric field and electric potential). For many students, the cause of these difficulties is a failure to fully distinguish between the components of a vector function and its coordinate variables. To address this difficulty, we implement an additional in-class activity requiring students to translate between graphical and algebraic representations of vector functions. We present our experience with these issues, how to address them, and how in-class activities can provide evidence of student thinking that facilitates curricular refinement.

E. Gire and E. Price, Graphical representations of vector functions in upper-division E&M, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 27-30 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679985.

Implementation of phased-array homework: Assessment and focused understanding
Stacy H. Godshall
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 31-34, doi:10.1063/1.3679986
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Students demonstrate different levels of understanding of material which often coincide with how diligent the students are with their daily preparation for class. Having students attempt homework problems prior to class enables them to be better prepared to ask specific questions about concepts and to perform on exams, as well as to develop as self learners. This paper will introduce "phased-array homework" that is a flexible system of assigning homework. In addition, this paper discusses resources for students that provide a scaffold for completing this type of homework. As the name of the homework system implies, phased-array homework (PAH) allows an instructor to shape and steer student understanding in much the same way that a phased-array antenna allows for the shaping and steering of a transmitted electromagnetic signal to yield its subsequent effective radiation pattern. Implementation method and results will be presented as well as student perspective on the system.

S. H. Godshall, Implementation of phased-array homework: Assessment and focused understanding, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 31-34 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679986.

ACS Exams as an Example of Scholarship-based Assessment in a Discipline
Thomas A. Holme and Megan L. Grunert
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 35-38, doi:10.1063/1.3679987
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The Examinations Institute of the American Chemical Society has been producing norm-referenced exams for over 75 years and these efforts are reviewed here. The process by which exam-writing committees produce these exams involves both the setting of the content and trial testing of items prior to establishing the released exam. Beyond this process, the Institute has engaged in research based on data derived from various tests.

T. A. Holme and M. L. Grunert, ACS Exams as an Example of Scholarship-based Assessment in a Discipline, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 35-38 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679987.

Promoting and Assessing Creativity and Innovation in Physics Undergraduates
Patrick B. Kohl , H. Vincent Kuo, Susan Kowalski, and Frank Kowalski
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 39-42, doi:10.1063/1.3679988
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Creative thought and the ability to innovate are critical skills in industrial and academic careers alike. There exist attempts to foster creative skills in the business world, but little such work has been documented in a physics context. In particular, there are few tools available for those who want to assess the creativity of their physics students, making it difficult to tell whether instruction is having any effect. In this paper, we outline a new elective course at the Colorado School of Mines in the physics department designed to develop creativity and innovation in physics majors. We present our efforts to assess this course formatively, using tablet PCs and InkSurvey software, and summatively using the discipline-independent Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. We also describe early work towards developing a physics-specific instrument for measuring creativity.

P. B. Kohl, H. V. Kuo, S. Kowalski, and F. Kowalski, Promoting and Assessing Creativity and Innovation in Physics Undergraduates, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 39-42 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679988.

Developing a magnetism conceptual survey and assessing gender differences in student understanding of magnetism
Jing Li and Chandralekha Singh
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 43-46, doi:10.1063/1.3679989
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We discuss the development of a research-based conceptual multiple-choice survey of magnetism. We also discuss the use of the survey to investigate gender differences in students' difficulties with concepts related to magnetism. We find that while there was no gender difference on the pre-test. However, female students performed significantly worse than male students when the survey was given as a post-test in traditionally taught calculus-based introductory physics courses with similar results in both the regular and honors versions of the course. In the algebra-based courses, the performance of female and male students has no statistical difference on the pre-test or the post-test.

J. Li and C. Singh, Developing a magnetism conceptual survey and assessing gender differences in student understanding of magnetism, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 43-46 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679989.

Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?
Shih-Yin Lin and Chandralekha Singh
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 47-50, doi:10.1063/1.3679990
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We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

S. Lin and C. Singh, Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 47-50 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679990.

Assessment to complement research-based instruction in upper-level physics courses
Michael E. Loverude
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 51-54, doi:10.1063/1.3679991
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Traditional upper-division physics courses tend to focus on summative assessment through quantitative and symbolic problem-solving examination questions. Reforming instruction suggests the need for assessment that matches the instructional strategies. In this paper, we describe assessment strategies implemented in two physics core courses, thermal physics and mathematical methods. Strategies include frequent formative assessment in the form of written ungraded quizzes as well as the inclusion of qualitative written problems on graded quizzes and exams. Examples of assessment items and student responses will be shown. In particular, we will show evidence that students at this level respond more positively to 'pretests' than one might expect, suggesting more expert-like epistemological expectations than is often the case in the introductory course.

M. E. Loverude, Assessment to complement research-based instruction in upper-level physics courses, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 51-54 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679991.

Representations for a spins-first approach to quantum mechanics
Corinne A. Manogue, Elizabeth Gire, David McIntyre, and Janet Tate
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 55-58, doi:10.1063/1.3679992
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In the Paradigms in Physics Curriculum at Oregon State University, we take a spins-first approach to quantum mechanics using a java simulation of successive Stern-Gerlach experiments to explore the postulates. The experimental schematic is a diagrammatic representation that we use throughout our discussion of quantum measurements. With a spins-first approach, it is natural to start with Dirac bra-ket language for states, observables, and projection operators. We also use explicit matrix representations of operators and ask students to translate between the Dirac and matrix languages. The projection of the state onto a basis is represented with a histogram. When we subsequently introduce wave functions, the wave function attains a natural interpretation as the continuous limit of these discrete histograms or a projection of a Dirac ket onto position or momentum eigenstates. We are able to test the students' facility with moving between these representations in later modules.

C. A. Manogue, E. Gire, D. McIntyre, and J. Tate, Representations for a spins-first approach to quantum mechanics, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 55-58 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679992.

Complex Interactions between Formative Assessment, Technology, and Classroom Practices
Edward Price
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 59-62, doi:10.1063/1.3679993
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Interactive engagement (IE) methods provide instructors with evidence of student thinking that can guide instructional decisions across a range of timescales: facilitating an activity, determining the flow of activities, or modifying the curriculum. Thus, from the instructor's perspective, IE activities can function as formative assessments. As a practical matter, the ability to utilize this potential depends on how the activities are implemented. This paper describes different tools for small group problem solving, including whiteboards, Tablet PCs, digital cameras, and photo-sharing websites. These tools provide the instructor with varying levels of access to student work during and after class, and therefore provide a range of support for formative assessment. Furthermore, the tools differ in physical size, ease of use, and the roles for students and instructor. These differences lead to complex, often surprising interactions with classroom practices.

E. Price, Complex Interactions between Formative Assessment, Technology, and Classroom Practices, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 59-62 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679993.

Changing Scientific Reasoning and Conceptual Understanding in College Students
Brian A. Pyper
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 63-65, doi:10.1063/1.3679994
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Data from several years and several different classes have shown that Lawson test scores do not change much over the course of a single semester and are strongly correlated with FCI gains. So what does change Lawson scores? We have new data that we think shows that more interaction with materials that demand reasoning (and not just clicker questions and end of chapter Homework problems) improves reasoning ability and subsequently conceptual development.

B. A. Pyper, Changing Scientific Reasoning and Conceptual Understanding in College Students, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 63-65 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679994.

Comparing students' performance on research-based conceptual assessments and traditional classroom assessments
N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 66-68, doi:10.1063/1.3679995
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The use of concept inventories to investigate students' learning gains is common in physics education research. However, comparatively little research has compared students' learning gains on concept inventories with other more traditional assessments in the classroom. We present a study comparing second semester calculus-based physics students' performance on traditional classroom assessments including exams and homework with learning gains on SEMCO (Survey of Electricity, Magnetism, Circuits and Optics), which was previously created by combining questions on other conceptual surveys such as CSEM and DIRECT. We report on students' performance on specific items on SEMCO and corresponding traditional classroom assessments that are based on the same topic. Our results indicate that while the overall performance on SEMCO might correlate with aggregate performance on class exams, the performance on clusters of SEMCO items that assess conceptual understanding in various topical areas does not correlate as strongly with performance on corresponding traditional exams. These results raise some potentially interesting issues on the validity and usefulness of traditional classroom assessments and conceptual assessments that are often used to measure student learning in introductory physics.

N. S. Rebello, Comparing students' performance on research-based conceptual assessments and traditional classroom assessments, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 66-68 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679995.

Standards-based grading with voice: Listening for students' understanding
Andy Rundquist
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 69-72, doi:10.1063/1.3679996
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Standards-based grading is gaining popularity at the high school level, including physics courses. The basic notion is to give your students a list of objectives upfront that they need to master. Students can reassess often and their final grade is determined solely by their last reassessment on each standard. It is the instructor's job to help students find ways of showing their mastery to you. I implemented this in a junior-level mechanics course where the small numbers allowed me to introduce a novel twist: all assessments had to include the student's voice. This meant that students turned in pencasts, screencasts, and in-person assessments. Several days were also set aside for collaborative oral assessments, where students offered up honest advice and scores were mutually determined. In this paper, I'll share my experience trying out this pedagogical experiment and try to convey how it has improved my own understanding of my students' understanding.

A. Rundquist, Standards-based grading with voice: Listening for students' understanding, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 69-72 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679996.

Assessment lessons from K-12 education research: Knowledge representation, learning, and motivation
Lorrie A. Shepard
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 73-76, doi:10.1063/1.3679997
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Research on teaching to the test in K-12 settings has documented the lack of generalized understanding of underlying principles in tested subjects. This is similar to the experience of physics students who can complete computational problems without conceptual understanding. The PER community is well aware of the importance of explicit representations of learning goals as well as the role of the formative assessment process, especially feedback and self assessment, in promoting or deterring students' engagement and willingness to take responsibility for their own learning. Key principles from socio-cultural learning theory and research on motivation are summarized and used to identify instructional and assessment practices that hold the most promise for engaging students in developing deep conceptual understanding.

L. A. Shepard, Assessment lessons from K-12 education research: Knowledge representation, learning, and motivation, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 73-76 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679997.

Improving students' understanding of quantum mechanics by using peer instruction tools
Chandralekha Singh and Guangtian Zhu
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 77-80, doi:10.1063/1.3679998
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Quantum mechanics is a challenging subject, even for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Here, we discuss the development and evaluation of research-based concept tests for peer instruction as a formative assessment tool in quantum mechanics (QM) courses. The preliminary evaluations show that these tools are effective in helping students develop a good grasp of quantum mechanics.

C. Singh and G. Zhu, Improving students' understanding of quantum mechanics by using peer instruction tools, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 77-80 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679998.

When students can choose easy, medium, or hard homework problems
Raluca E. Teodorescu, Daniel T. Seaton, Caroline N. Cardamone, Saif Rayyan, Jonathan E. Abbott, Analia Barrantes, Andrew Pawl, and David E. Pritchard
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 81-84, doi:10.1063/1.3679999
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We investigate student-chosen, multi-level homework in our Integrated Learning Environment for Mechanics built using the LON-CAPA open-source learning system. Multi-level refers to problems categorized as easy, medium, and hard. Problem levels were determined a priori based on the knowledge needed to solve them. We analyze these problems using three measures: time-per-problem, LON-CAPA difficulty, and item difficulty measured by item response theory. Our analysis of student behavior in this environment suggests that time-per-problem is strongly dependent on problem category, unlike either score-based measures. We also found trends in student choice of problems, overall effort, and efficiency across the student population. Allowing students choice in problem solving seems to improve their motivation; 70% of students worked additional problems for which no credit was given.

R. E. Teodorescu, D. T. Seaton, C. N. Cardamone, S. Rayyan, J. E. Abbott, A. Barrantes, A. Pawl, and D. E. Pritchard, When students can choose easy, medium, or hard homework problems, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 81-84 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3679999.

Representations of partial derivatives in thermodynamics
John R. Thompson, Corinne A. Manogue, David J. Roundy, and Donald B. Mountcastle
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 85-88, doi:10.1063/1.3680000
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One of the mathematical objects that students become familiar with in thermodynamics, often for the first time, is the partial derivative of a multivariable function. The symbolic representation of a partial derivative and related quantities present difficulties for students in both mathematical and physical contexts, most notably what it means to keep one or more variables fixed while taking the derivative with respect to a different variable. Material properties are themselves written as partial derivatives of various state functions (e.g., compressibility is a partial derivative of volume with respect to pressure). Research in courses at the University of Maine and Oregon State University yields findings related to the many ways that partial derivatives can be represented and interpreted in thermodynamics. Research has informed curricular development that elicits many of the difficulties using different representations (e.g., geometric) and different contexts (e.g., connecting partial derivatives to specific experiments).

J. R. Thompson, C. A. Manogue, D. J. Roundy, and D. B. Mountcastle, Representations of partial derivatives in thermodynamics, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 85-88 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680000.

Representation issues: Using mathematics in upper-division physics
Joseph F. Wagner, Corinne A. Manogue, and John R. Thompson
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 89-92, doi:10.1063/1.3680001
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Upper-division students must learn to apply sophisticated mathematics from algebra, limits, calculus, multivariable and vector calculus, linear algebra, complex variables, and ordinary and partial differential equations. The presenters in this session will discuss how the representations that we choose may affect whether students are able to use this mathematics spontaneously and correctly, whether they can move smoothly between representations, and the extent to which their understanding of the mathematics enhances their understanding of the physics. The discussant will incorporate the perspective of research in undergraduate mathematics education as it applies to the representations that have been presented.

J. F. Wagner, C. A. Manogue, and J. R. Thompson, Representation issues: Using mathematics in upper-division physics, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 89-92 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680001.

When basic changes to a solution suggest meaningful differences in mathematics
Michael C. Wittmann and Katrina E. Black
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 93-96, doi:10.1063/1.3680002
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When solving two integrals arising from the separation of variables in a first order linear differential equation, students have multiple correct choices for how to proceed. They might set limits on both integrals or use integration constants on both or only one equation. In each case, the physical meaning of the mathematics is equivalent. But, how students choose to represent the mathematics can tell us much about what they are thinking. We observe students debating how to integrate the quantity dt. One student seeks a general function that works for everyone, and does not wish to specify the value of the integration constant. Another student seeks a function consistent with the specific physics problem. They compromise by using a constant, undefined in value for one student, zero in value for the other.

M. C. Wittmann and K. E. Black, When basic changes to a solution suggest meaningful differences in mathematics, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 93-96 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680002.

The group administered interactive questionnaire: An alternative to individual interviews
Edit Yerushalmi, Charles R. Henderson, William Mamudi, Chandralekha Singh, and Shih-Yin Lin
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 97-100, doi:10.1063/1.3680003
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Individual interviews are often considered to be the gold standard for researchers to understand how people think about phenomena. However, conducting and analyzing interviews is very time consuming. This paper presents the Group Administered Interactive Questionnaire (GAIQ) as an alternative to individual interviews and discusses the pros and cons of each data collection method. Use of GAIQ will be discussed in the context of a study that seeks to understand teaching assistants' reasons for the design of problem solutions for introductory physics.

E. Yerushalmi, C. R. Henderson, W. Mamudi, C. Singh, and S. Lin, The group administered interactive questionnaire: An alternative to individual interviews, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 97-100 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680003.

PEER REVIEWED MANUSCRIPTS (73)

First Author Index

Alvarado · Baily · Bajracharya · Barniol · Barr · Bates · Belleau · Brookes · Cardamone · Chasteen · Chini · Close · Corpuz · Crouch · Dancy · DeBeck · Dietz · Ding · Dreyfus · Duda · Durden · Foster · Gire · Gray · Harrer · Hawkins · Henderson · Hu · Ibrahim · Iverson · Khan · Kost-Smith · Kuo · Lee · Li · Lin · Lung · Maries · Martinuk · Haghanikar · McBride · McKagan · Nakamura · Pawl · Pepper · Perkins · Podolefsky · Pollock · Rebello · Rodriguez · Rosengrant · Ross · Rouinfar · Sanchez · Sawtelle · Scherr · Severance · Singh · Slaughter · Spike · Stephanik · Turpen · Van Dusen · Von Korff · Wittmann · Zhu · Zwickl

Peer-reviewed Papers

Expectancy violation in physics and mathematics classes in a student-centered classroom
Carolina Alvarado, Angeles Dominguez, Ruth Rodriguez, and Genaro Zavala
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 103-106, doi:10.1063/1.3680004
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This report analyzes the results of the implementation at a large private Mexican university of the Pedagogical Expectancy Violation Assessment (PEVA), developed by Gaffney, Gaffney and Beichner. The PEVA was designed to evaluate shifts of the first student's expectations due to the initial orientation and experiences in the classroom. The data was collected at the Student-Centered Learning (ACE) classroom, based on the Student Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) classroom. Three professors participated with their groups during the first semester they implemented their courses in this environment. Participants were enrolled either in a Pre-Calculus, Differential Equations, or Electricity and Magnetism course. The results indicate shifts in students' expectations during the semester and reveals differences in shifts among the different courses.

C. Alvarado, A. Dominguez, R. Rodriguez, and G. Zavala, Expectancy violation in physics and mathematics classes in a student-centered classroom, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 103-106 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680004.

Interpretive Themes in Quantum Physics: Curriculum Development and Outcomes
Charles Baily and Noah D. Finkelstein
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 107-110, doi:10.1063/1.3680005
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A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our prior work has shown that student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics can be characterized, and are differentially influenced by the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. We report how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) has positively impacted student perspectives on quantum physics, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of the course, but also by making the beliefs of students (and not just those of scientists) an explicit topic of discussion.

C. Baily and N. D. Finkelstein, Interpretive Themes in Quantum Physics: Curriculum Development and Outcomes, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 107-110 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680005.

Student Interpretation of the Signs of Definite Integrals Using Graphical Representations
Rabindra R. Bajracharya, Thomas M. Wemyss, and John R. Thompson
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 111-114, doi:10.1063/1.3680006
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Physics students are expected to apply the mathematics learned in their mathematics courses to physics concepts and problems. Few PER studies have distinguished between difficulties students have with physics concepts and those with either mathematics concepts and their application or the representations used to connect the math and the physics. We are conducting empirical studies of student responses to mathematics questions dealing with graphical representations of (single-variable) integration. Reasoning in written responses could roughly be put into three major categories related to particular features of the graphs: area under the curve, position of the function, and shape of the curve. In subsequent individual interviews, we varied representational features to explore the depth and breadth of the contextual nature of student reasoning, with an emphasis on negative integrals. Results suggest an incomplete understanding of the criteria that determine the sign of a definite integral.

R. R. Bajracharya, T. M. Wemyss, and J. R. Thompson, Student Interpretation of the Signs of Definite Integrals Using Graphical Representations, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 111-114 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680006.

Students' difficulties with unit vectors and scalar multiplication of a vector
Pablo Barniol
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 115-118, doi:10.1063/1.3680007
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In this article we report an investigation on students' understanding of: 1) unit vectors and, 2) scalar multiplication of a vector. We administered two different tests to a total of 850 students after taking their first introductory physics course on mechanics at a large private Mexican university. The first test about unit vectors was taken by 270 students and the second test about scalar multiplication of a vector by 580 students. In the first part of this article, we analyze students' difficulties sketching the unit vector in the direction of a vector in the Cartesian coordinate plane. In the second part, we analyze students' responses in two types of problems: positive and negative scalar multiplication of a vector. In both parts of this article we describe frequent errors that have not been reported in the literature.

P. Barniol, Students' difficulties with unit vectors and scalar multiplication of a vector, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 115-118 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680007.

Using Artifact Methodology to Compare Learning Assistants’ and Colleagues’ Classroom Practices
Stephanie A. Barr, Michael J. Ross, and Valerie K. Otero
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 119-122, doi:10.1063/1.3680008
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The University of Colorado's LA-Test K-12 research team investigated the classroom practices of former Learning Assistants' who went on to become K-12 teachers. One of the tools used for this analysis of classroom practice was the Scoop Notebook, an instructional artifact package developed to assess teachers' use of reform-oriented practices. In this paper, the authors characterize differences in classroom practices between former Learning Assistants teaching at the secondary level and their colleagues through the collection and analysis of teaching artifacts. Analyses of these artifacts indicate significant differences between LA and non-LA groups. A description of the methodology and implications of using artifact packages to study classroom practice will be discussed, detailing the role of the LA experience in teacher preparation.

S. A. Barr, M. J. Ross, and V. K. Otero, Using Artifact Methodology to Compare Learning Assistants’ and Colleagues’ Classroom Practices, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 119-122 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680008.

Student-generated content: Using PeerWise to enhance engagement and outcomes in introductory physics courses
Simon P. Bates, Ross K. Galloway, and Karon L. McBride
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 123-126, doi:10.1063/1.3680009
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We describe the implementation and evaluation of an online tool to support student generation of multiple choice assessment questions within two consecutive semesters of introductory physics at the University of Edinburgh. We substituted a weekly homework for an assessment activity in which each student was required to participate in using the system. Engagement with the system was high, with contributions generally going beyond the minimum requirements. The quality of submissions was on average high, with the very best questions being remarkably detailed problems rather than exercises. We explore links between use of the online system and end of course examination score. We find that students with higher levels of activity in the system scored significantly higher marks on the exam; this effect was seen for students of lower ability as well as for the highest performing students.

S. P. Bates, R. K. Galloway, and K. L. McBride, Student-generated content: Using PeerWise to enhance engagement and outcomes in introductory physics courses, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 123-126 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680009.

Implementation of physics and everyday thinking in a high school classroom: Concepts and argumentation
Shelly N. Belleau, Michael J. Ross, and Valerie K. Otero
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 127-130, doi:10.1063/1.3680010
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The Physics and Everyday Thinking (PET) curriculum is based on educational research and consists of carefully sequenced sets of activities intended to help students develop physics ideas through guided experimentation and questioning with extensive small group and whole class discussion. A high school physics teacher has adapted and implemented the PET curriculum in a low-income urban high school with the aim of removing barriers that typically limit access to traditional physics curriculum. Though PET was not designed for secondary physics students, this teacher has worked closely with physics education research faculty and graduate students to simultaneously modify, implement, and investigate the impact of PET on urban high school students' physics learning. Preliminary results indicate that the PET curriculum has great potential to provide students with opportunities for success in understanding physics concepts, as well as helping to develop scientific argumentation strategies.

S. N. Belleau, M. J. Ross, and V. K. Otero, Implementation of physics and everyday thinking in a high school classroom: Concepts and argumentation, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 127-130 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680010.

Designing a physics learning environment: A holistic approach
David T. Brookes and Yuhfen Lin
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 131-134, doi:10.1063/1.3680011
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Physics students enter our classroom with significant learning experiences and learning goals that are just as important as their prior knowledge. Consequently, they have expectations about how they should be taught. The instructor enters the same classroom and presents the students with materials and assessments that he/she believes reflect his/her learning goals for the students. When students encounter a reformed physics class, there is often a "misalignment" between students' perceptions, and learning goals the instructor designed for the students. We want to propose that alignment can be achieved in a reformed physics class by taking a holistic view of the classroom. In other words, it is not just about teaching physics, but a problem of social engineering. We will discuss how we applied this social engineering idea on multiple scales (individual students, groups, and the whole class) to achieve alignment between students' expectations and the instructor's learning goals.

D. T. Brookes and Y. Lin, Designing a physics learning environment: A holistic approach, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 131-134 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680011.

Item response theory analysis of the mechanics baseline test
Caroline N. Cardamone, Jonathan E. Abbott, Saif Rayyan, Daniel T. Seaton, Andrew Pawl, and David E. Pritchard
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 135-138, doi:10.1063/1.3680012
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Item response theory is useful in both the development and evaluation of assessments and in computing standardized measures of student performance. In item response theory, individual parameters (difficulty, discrimination) for each item or question are fit by item response models. These parameters provide a means for evaluating a test and offer a better measure of student skill than a raw test score, because each skill calculation considers not only the number of questions answered correctly, but the individual properties of all questions answered. Here, we present the results from an analysis of the Mechanics Baseline Test given at MIT during 2005-2010. Using the item parameters, we identify questions on the Mechanics Baseline Test that are not effective in discriminating between MIT students of different abilities. We show that a limited subset of the highest quality questions on the Mechanics Baseline Test returns accurate measures of student skill. We compare student skills as determined by item response theory to the more traditional measurement of the raw score and show that a comparable measure of learning gain can be computed.

C. N. Cardamone, J. E. Abbott, S. Rayyan, D. T. Seaton, A. Pawl, and D. E. Pritchard, Item response theory analysis of the mechanics baseline test, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 135-138 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680012.

But Does It Last? Sustaining a Research-Based Curriculum in Upper-Division Electricity & Magnetism
Stephanie V. Chasteen, Rachel E. Pepper, Steven J. Pollock, and Katherine K. Perkins
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 139-142, doi:10.1063/1.3680014
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We report on the process and outcomes from a four-year, eight-semester project to develop, establish, and maintain a new course approach in junior-level electricity and magnetism (E&M). Almost all developed materials (i.e., clicker questions, tutorials, homework, and student difficulties) were used successfully by several subsequent instructors, indicating a high rate of sustainability over time and between instructors. We describe the factors related to successful transfer and to decisions not to adopt the materials, based on observations, instructor interviews, and student data.

S. V. Chasteen, R. E. Pepper, S. J. Pollock, and K. K. Perkins, But Does It Last? Sustaining a Research-Based Curriculum in Upper-Division Electricity & Magnetism, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 139-142 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680014.

Teasing out the effect of tutorials via multiple regression
Stephanie V. Chasteen
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 143-146, doi:10.1063/1.3680015
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We transformed an upper-division physics course using a variety of elements, including homework help sessions, tutorials, clicker questions with peer instruction, and explicit learning goals. Overall, the course transformations improved student learning, as measured by our conceptual assessment. Since these transformations were multi-faceted, we would like to understand the impact of individual course elements. Attendance at tutorials and homework help sessions was optional, and occurred outside the class environment. In order to identify the impact of these optional out-of-class sessions, given self-selection effects in student attendance, we performed a multiple regression analysis. Even when background variables are taken into account, tutorial attendance is positively correlated with student conceptual understanding of the material - though not with performance on course exams. Other elements that increase student time-on-task, such as homework help sessions and lectures, do not achieve the same impacts.

S. V. Chasteen, Teasing out the effect of tutorials via multiple regression, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 143-146 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680015.

What do students learn about work in physical and virtual experiments with inclined planes?
Jacquelyn J. Chini, Adrian M. Madsen, N. Sanjay Rebello, and Sadhana Puntambekar
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 147-150, doi:10.1063/1.3680016
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In previous studies, we have reported a difference in how physical and virtual manipulatives support students' understanding of the physics definition of work in the context of simple machines. We have shown that students who use the virtual manipulative (a computer simulation) before performing a physical experiment provided the correct response to multiple-choice questions about work more frequently than students who first use the physical manipulative. In this paper, we further analyze students' responses to a series of questions about work in the context of inclined planes to explore the models students used to answer the questions. While we had anticipated that students who performed the physical experiment would incorrectly respond to the multiple-choice questions in accordance with their observations (i.e. a longer ramp requires more work due to frictional effects), we actually observed these students more frequently using an alternate model that a longer ramp requires less work.

J. J. Chini, A. M. Madsen, N. S. Rebello, and S. Puntambekar, What do students learn about work in physical and virtual experiments with inclined planes?, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 147-150 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680016.

Differentiation of energy concepts through speech and gesture in interaction
Hunter G. Close and Rachel E. Scherr
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 151-154, doi:10.1063/1.3680017
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Through microanalysis of speech and gesture in one interaction between learners (in a course on energy for in-service teachers), we observe coherent states of conceptual differentiation of different learners. We observe that the interaction among learners across different states of differentiation is not in itself sufficient to accomplish differentiation; however, the real-time receptivity of the learners to conceptually relevant details in each other's actions suggests that future instruction that focuses explicitly on such actions and their meaning in context may assist differentiation.

H. G. Close and R. E. Scherr, Differentiation of energy concepts through speech and gesture in interaction, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 151-154 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680017.

The use of PDAs as classroom interaction system: Instructors' perspective
Edgar D. Corpuz, Ma. Aileen A. Corpuz, and Mary A. Moriarty
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 155-158, doi:10.1063/1.3680018
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We have been implementing a web-based interaction system in which students use personal digital assistants (PDAs) to interact with their instructor in their physics/physical science lecture classes. In this paper, we discuss the instructors' implementation strategies, pedagogical approaches, and perceived effectiveness of the interactive teaching approach on students' progress, engagement, and achievement. In addition, we will document the impact of the interactive teaching approach on instructors' pedagogical orientation.

E. D. Corpuz, M. A. A. Corpuz, and M. A. Moriarty, The use of PDAs as classroom interaction system: Instructors' perspective, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 155-158 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680018.

Teaching physics to life science students - Examining the role of biological context
Catherine H. Crouch and Kenneth Heller
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 159-162, doi:10.1063/1.3680019
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We describe a research agenda to inform renovating the introductory physics course commonly taught to life science majors. The theoretical framework of the renovation is the cognitive apprenticeship model, in which learning occurs most effectively in an environment of expert practices so that students can articulate why their learning matters. This model is supported by studies of transfer that suggest for students to successfully apply physics to another field, they need practice making such applications. Guided by this theoretical framework, we have begun to restructure our introductory physics courses for these students around biologically rich contexts - examples in which fundamental physics plays a significant role in understanding a biological system - to make explicit the value of physics to the life sciences. This requires restructuring the course content to reflect the topics most relevant to biology. In this paper we describe our approach to this course, identify research directions addressing (1) the role of biological context in learning for these students and (2) issues in implementing such a course for physics faculty, and summarize preliminary results.

C. H. Crouch and K. Heller, Teaching physics to life science students - Examining the role of biological context, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 159-162 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680019.

Experiences of new faculty implementing research-based instructional strategies
Melissa H. Dancy and Charles R. Henderson
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 163-166, doi:10.1063/1.3680020
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As part of an ongoing study to better understand and improve the diffusion of research-based pedagogies, we are following 15 faculty for 5 semesters after attending the Physics and Astronomy New Faculty Workshop. In this paper we report on the experiences of these faculty the first semester after the workshop. Faculty were interviewed both before and after the semester. Instructional artifacts and course outcome data were also collected. We discuss how the New Faculty Workshop experience impacted these faculty, the concerns and challenges the faculty encountered and how these faculty report spending their time. Implications for the diffusion of innovations are discussed.

M. H. Dancy and C. R. Henderson, Experiences of new faculty implementing research-based instructional strategies, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 163-166 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680020.

Teaching assistant-student interactions in a modified SCALE-UP classroom
George DeBeck and Dedra Demaree
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 167-170, doi:10.1063/1.3680021
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In the spring term of 2010, Oregon State University (OSU) began using a SCALE-UP style classroom in the instruction of the introductory calculus-based physics series. Instruction in this classroom was conducted in weekly two-hour sessions facilitated by the primary professor and either two graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) or a graduate teaching assistant and an undergraduate learning assistant (LA). During the course of instruction, two of the eight tables in the room were audio and video recorded. We examine the practices of the GTAs in interacting with the students through both qualitative and quantitative analyses of these recordings. Quantitatively, significant differences are seen between the most experienced GTA and the rest. A major difference in confidence is also observed in the qualitative analysis of this GTA compared to a less experienced GTA.

G. DeBeck and D. Demaree, Teaching assistant-student interactions in a modified SCALE-UP classroom, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 167-170 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680021.

Gender bias in the force concept inventory?
R. D. Dietz, R. H. Pearson, M. R. Semak, and C. W. Willis
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 171-174, doi:10.1063/1.3680022
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Could the well-established fact that males tend to score higher than females on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) be due to gender bias in the questions? The eventual answer to the question hinges on the definition of bias. We assert that a question is biased only if a factor other than ability (in this case gender) affects the likelihood that a student will answer the question correctly. The statistical technique of differential item functioning allows us to control for ability in our analysis of student performance on each of the thirty FCI questions. This method uses the total score on the FCI as the measure of ability. We conclude that the evidence for gender bias in the FCI questions is marginal at best.

R. D. Dietz, R. H. Pearson, M. R. Semak, and C. W. Willis, Gender bias in the force concept inventory?, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 171-174 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680022.

Applying Rasch theory to evaluate the construct validity of brief electricity and magnetism assessment
Lin Ding
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 175-178, doi:10.1063/1.3680023
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The Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA) is a 30-item multiple-choice test, designed to evaluate student understanding of basic electricity and magnetism (E&M) concepts at the introductory physics level. While previous studies have demonstrated its face and content validity, no efforts were made to evaluate the construct validity of this assessment. In the present study, we use Rasch modeling to explore whether or not the BEMA items can collectively measure the same ability (trait)-student basic understanding and application of E&M concepts. Results from item reliability, person reliability, person-item map, and item fit of Rasch modeling show that in general BEMA items, albeit covering a broad range of topics, form a unidimensional construct.

L. Ding, Applying Rasch theory to evaluate the construct validity of brief electricity and magnetism assessment, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 175-178 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680023.

Student views of macroscopic and microscopic energy in physics and biology
Benjamin W. Dreyfus, Edward F. Redish, and Jessica Watkins
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 179-182, doi:10.1063/1.3680024
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Energy concepts are fundamental across the sciences, yet these concepts can be fragmented along disciplinary boundaries, rather than integrated into a coherent whole. To teach physics effectively to biology students, we need to understand students' disciplinary perspectives. We present interview data from an undergraduate student who displays multiple stances towards the concept of energy. At times he views energy in macroscopic contexts as a separate entity from energy in microscopic (particularly biological) contexts, while at other times he uses macroscopic physics phenomena as productive analogies for understanding energy in the microscopic biological context, and he reasons about energy transformations between the microscopic and macroscopic scales. This case study displays preliminary evidence for the context dependence of students' ability to translate energy concepts across scientific disciplines. This points to challenges that must be taken into account in developing curricula for biology students that integrate physics and biology concepts.

B. W. Dreyfus, E. F. Redish, and J. Watkins, Student views of macroscopic and microscopic energy in physics and biology, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 179-182 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680024.

Problem-based learning in upper division courses: Student successes, perceptions, and reactions
Gintaras Duda and James Ross
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 183-186, doi:10.1063/1.3680025
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This paper presents an experiment in project/problem-based learning (PBL) in an upper division mathematical physics course. The group project in the course involved modeling a zombie outbreak of the type seen in AMC's The Walking Dead. Students researched, devised, and solved their mathematical models for the spread of a zombie-like infection. Students independently learned and utilized numerical methods to solve highly coupled systems of differential equations. This work explores student perceptions and reactions to problem-based learning, and the feasibility of using PBL as the sole pedagogy in upper division physics courses.

G. Duda and J. Ross, Problem-based learning in upper division courses: Student successes, perceptions, and reactions, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 183-186 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680025.

"Implicit action": Understanding discourse management in modeling instruction
Jared Durden, Eric Brewe, and Laird H. Kramer
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 187-190, doi:10.1063/1.3680026
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We present "Implicit Action", a discourse management tool, through a qualitative video analysis of a Florida International University Modeling Instruction Introductory Physics I class. Implicit Action in Modeling Instruction is where instructors deliberately create intellectual space in which students ideally see value and need for the construction of new classroom norms and tools that are productive in developing a learning community. This space is created by the implications expressed through the instructors' deliberate actions. Discourse Management is a technique to moderate student discourse in Modeling Instruction classes at the university level that was initially described by Desbien. Implicit Action is one of 9 Modeling Discourse Management tools that we have identified. By means of qualitative analysis we illustrate the effectiveness of Implicit Action in implementing the Modeling Theory of Instruction.

J. Durden, E. Brewe, and L. H. Kramer, "Implicit action": Understanding discourse management in modeling instruction, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 187-190 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680026.

Developing an energy assessment for elementary education majors
Thomas M. Foster and Daniel Barnett
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 191-194, doi:10.1063/1.3680027
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In support of an NSF-CCLI program, we developed a multiple-choice efficacy assessment for the energy concept. What makes this work novel amongst the sea of energy concept assessments is the intended audience: elementary and early childhood education majors. While these are smart and capable college students, their demographics require a different assessment than our engineering students. We will discuss the development of the assessment and our preliminary results.

T. M. Foster and D. Barnett, Developing an energy assessment for elementary education majors, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 191-194 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680027.

Making sense of quantum operators, eigenstates and quantum measurements
Elizabeth Gire and Corinne A. Manogue
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 195-198, doi:10.1063/1.3680028
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Operators play a central role in the formalism of quantum mechanics. In particular, operators corresponding to observables encode important information about the results of quantum measurements. We interviewed upper-level undergraduate physics majors about their understanding of the role of operators in quantum measurements. Previous studies have shown that many students think of measurements on quantum systems as being deterministic and that measurements mathematically correspond to operators acting on the initial quantum state. This study is consistent with and expands on those results. We report on how two students make sense of a quantum measurement problem involving sequential measurements and the role that the eigenvalue equation plays in this sense-making.

E. Gire and C. A. Manogue, Making sense of quantum operators, eigenstates and quantum measurements, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 195-198 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680028.

Effects of the learning assistant experience on in-service teachers' practices
Kara E. Gray, David C. Webb, and Valerie K. Otero
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 199-202, doi:10.1063/1.3680029
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The Colorado Learning Assistant (LA) Program serves as a content-specific supplement to standard teacher preparation programs. In addition to transforming undergraduate STEM courses, it recruits and prepares math and science majors for teaching careers by involving university STEM faculty. The research reported here compares the teaching practices of in-service teachers who participated in the LA experience as undergraduates to a comparison group of teachers who did not participate in the LA program as undergraduates but were certified to teach through the same program. We report on teachers' views of assessments and differences in their teaching practices. This analysis is based on interviews with approximately 30 teachers and observations of their classrooms throughout their induction years of teaching. This work considers how the LA program may help improve current teacher preparation models.

K. E. Gray, D. C. Webb, and V. K. Otero, Effects of the learning assistant experience on in-service teachers' practices, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 199-202 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680029.

Elements of proximal formative assessment in learners' discourse about energy
Benedikt W. Harrer, Rachel E. Scherr, Michael C. Wittmann, Hunter G. Close, and Brian W. Frank
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 203-206, doi:10.1063/1.3680030
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Proximal formative assessment, the just-in-time elicitation of students' ideas that informs ongoing instruction, is usually associated with the instructor in a formal classroom setting. However, the elicitation, assessment, and subsequent instruction that characterize proximal formative assessment are also seen in discourse among peers. We present a case in which secondary teachers in a professional development course at SPU are discussing energy flow in refrigerators. In this episode, a peer is invited to share her thinking (elicitation). Her idea that refrigerators move heat from a relatively cold compartment to a hotter environment is inappropriately judged as incorrect (assessment). The "instruction" (peer explanation) that follows is based on the second law of thermodynamics, and acts as corrective rather than collaborative.

B. W. Harrer, R. E. Scherr, M. C. Wittmann, H. G. Close, and B. W. Frank, Elements of proximal formative assessment in learners' discourse about energy, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 203-206 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680030.

Probing Student Understanding with Alternative Questioning Strategies
Jeffrey M. Hawkins, Brian W. Frank, John R. Thompson, Michael C. Wittmann, and Thomas M. Wemyss
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 207-210, doi:10.1063/1.3680031
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Common research tasks ask students to identify a correct answer and justify their answer choice. We propose expanding the array of research tasks to access different knowledge that students might have. By asking students to discuss answers they may not have chosen naturally, we can investigate students' abilities to explain something that is already established or to disprove an incorrect response. The results of these research tasks also provide us with information about how students' responses vary across the different tasks. We discuss three underused question types, their possible benefits, and some preliminary results from an electric circuits pretest utilizing these novel question types. We find that the answer students most commonly choose as correct is the same choice most commonly eliminated as incorrect. Also, given the correct answer, students can provide valuable reasoning to explain it, but they do not spontaneously identify it as the correct answer.

J. M. Hawkins, B. W. Frank, J. R. Thompson, M. C. Wittmann, and T. M. Wemyss, Probing Student Understanding with Alternative Questioning Strategies, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 207-210 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680031.

Physics Education Research funding census
Charles R. Henderson, Ramón S. Barthelemy, Noah D. Finkelstein, and Jose P. Mestre
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 211-214, doi:10.1063/1.3680032
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It is important for a research community, such as Physics Education Research (PER), to understand how much funding it receives and where this funding comes from. During spring 2011, US-based members of the PER community were asked to respond to a web survey to identify funding that supports their research. Results indicate that the total funding base for PER from 2006-2010 (inclusive) is at least 262 grants worth a total of $72.5M. Most (75%) of the funding for PER comes from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and most of the NSF funding is through the NSF Directorate for Education and Human Resources. Very little PER work is funded through the Education and Interdisciplinary Research (EIR) Program that is housed within the NSF Division of Physics, nor is there significant funding from the US Department of Education. Although funding supports work at all levels of physics instruction, by far the largest amount of funding goes to support work at the introductory undergraduate level.

C. R. Henderson, R. S. Barthelemy, N. D. Finkelstein, and J. P. Mestre, Physics Education Research funding census, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 211-214 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680032.

Scaffolding students' application of the 'area under a curve' concept in physics problems
Dehui Hu, Joshua Von Korff, and N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 215-218, doi:10.1063/1.3680033
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We carried out several experiments in which we used sequences of physics problems to investigate students' ability to apply calculus concepts in physics problems. In this paper, we discuss an experiment which focused specifically on the concept of "area under a curve". We organized group problem solving sessions to teach students the concept of area under a curve using our problem sequences. We combined both a paper-based test and a computer-based test with online hints to assess students' ability to transfer their learning to solve new physics problems. We found that students' strategies for solving physics problems using this concept largely depend on problem type and scenario. Students' prior knowledge of area under a curve from calculus could interfere with their ability to learn a coherent model of using this concept in physics contexts.

D. Hu, J. V. Korff, and N. S. Rebello, Scaffolding students' application of the 'area under a curve' concept in physics problems, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 215-218 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680033.

Using Johnson-Laird's cognitive framework of sense-making to characterize engineering students' mental representations in kinematics
Bashirah Ibrahim and N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 219-222, doi:10.1063/1.3680034
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The study investigates the kinds of mental representations constructed by engineering students at Kansas State University when solving problems in the context of kinematics. A cohort of 19 students completed six non-directed tasks posed in different representational forms (mathematical, linguistic and graphical) requiring the generation of linguistic or mathematical models. Individual interviews were conducted immediately after completing the tasks. Based on the students' actions when solving the problems together with their interview responses, two main profiles emerged from the data. The profiles were then related to Johnson-Laird cognitive framework for inferring about the categories of cognitive structures. The framework proposes three types of internal constructs: propositional representations, mental models and mental images. It is argued that comprehension occurs upon the construction of mental models. However, this study revealed that a majority (11 in 19) of the participants use propositional representation while the remaining students construct a mental image

B. Ibrahim and N. S. Rebello, Using Johnson-Laird's cognitive framework of sense-making to characterize engineering students' mental representations in kinematics, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 219-222 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680034.

Understanding the Variable Effect of Instructional Innovations on Student Learning
Heidi L. Iverson
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 223-226, doi:10.1063/1.3680035
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As a result of dissatisfaction with the traditional lecture-based model of education a large number of reform-oriented instructional innovations have been developed, enacted, and studied in undergraduate physics courses. While previous work has shown that the impact of instructional innovations on student learning has been overwhelmingly positive, it has also been highly variable. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate this variability. For this analysis, 79 published studies on undergraduate physics instructional innovations were analyzed with respect to the types of innovations used and the methodological characteristics of the studies themselves. The findings of this analysis have indicated that nearly half of the variability in effect size can be accounted for by study design characteristics rather than by the characteristics of the innovations used. However, a subsequent analysis illustrated that one specific innovation, Workshop/Studio Physics, appears to be particularly effective within the observed sample of studies.

H. L. Iverson, Understanding the Variable Effect of Instructional Innovations on Student Learning, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 223-226 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680035.

Assessing students' ability to solve introductory physics problems using integrals in symbolic and graphical representations
Neelam Khan, Dehui Hu, Dong-Hai Nguyen, and N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 227-230, doi:10.1063/1.3680036
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Integration is widely used in physics in electricity and magnetism (E&M), as well as in mechanics, to calculate physical quantities from other non-constant quantities. We designed a survey to assess students' ability to apply integration to physics problems in introductory physics. Each student was given a set of eight problems, and each set of problems had two different versions; one consisted of symbolic problems and the other graphical problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' strategies for solving physics problems that use integrals in first and second-semester calculus-based physics. Our results indicate that most students had difficulty even recognizing that an integral is needed to solve the problem.

N. Khan, D. Hu, D. Nguyen, and N. S. Rebello, Assessing students' ability to solve introductory physics problems using integrals in symbolic and graphical representations, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 227-230 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680036.

Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges
Lauren E. Kost-Smith, Steven J. Pollock, Noah D. Finkelstein, Geoffrey L. Cohen, Tiffany A. Ito, and Akira Miyake
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 231-234, doi:10.1063/1.3680037
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We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.

L. E. Kost-Smith, S. J. Pollock, N. D. Finkelstein, G. L. Cohen, T. A. Ito, and A. Miyake, Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 231-234 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680037.

Socratic Dialogs and Clicker use in an Upper-Division Mechanics Course
H. Vincent Kuo, Patrick B. Kohl , and Lincoln D. Carr
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 235-238, doi:10.1063/1.3680038
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The general problem of effectively using interactive engagement in non-introductory physics courses remains open. We present a three-year study comparing different approaches to lecturing in an intermediate mechanics course at the Colorado School of Mines. In the first year, the lectures were fairly traditional. In the second year the lectures were modified to include Socratic dialogs between the instructor and students. In the third year, the instructor used a personal response system and Peer Instruction-like pedagogy. All other course materials were nearly identical to an established traditional lecture course. We present results from a new instructor-constructed conceptual survey, exams, and course evaluations. We observe little change in student exam performance as lecture techniques varied, though students consistently stated clickers were "the best part of the course" from which they "learned the most." Indeed, when using clickers in this course, students were considerably more likely to become engaged than students in CSM introductory courses using the same methods.

H. V. Kuo, P. B. Kohl, and L. D. Carr, Socratic Dialogs and Clicker use in an Upper-Division Mechanics Course, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 235-238 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680038.

Successes and constraints in the enactment of a reform
May Lee, Melissa H. Dancy, Charles R. Henderson, and Eric Brewe
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 239-242, doi:10.1063/1.3680039
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Despite research documenting the potentially positive impacts of research-based instructional reforms in physics, few high school physics teachers in the US enact them. One of the more successfully disseminated reforms is Modeling Instruction. To discern aspects of this reform that afforded or constrained its dissemination, we analyzed the interviews of five people involved in the development of Modeling Instruction. Our findings are framed within theoretical perspectives from the communities of practice, diffusion of innovations, and leadership.

M. Lee, M. H. Dancy, C. R. Henderson, and E. Brewe, Successes and constraints in the enactment of a reform, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 239-242 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680039.

Students' difficulties with equations involving circuit elements
Jing Li and Chandralekha Singh
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 243-246, doi:10.1063/1.3680040
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We discuss an investigation exploring students' difficulties with equations involving resistance, capacitance and inductance. We find that introductory physics students have great difficulty understanding, e.g., how the resistance of an ohmic resistor can be written in terms of the potential difference across it and the current through it, but it does not change when the potential difference across the resistor is varied. Similar confusions arose in problems relating to capacitors and inductors. We discuss these difficulties with equations in the context of introductory physics students' performance on questions about circuit elements both in the free-response and multiple-choice formats.

J. Li and C. Singh, Students' difficulties with equations involving circuit elements, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 243-246 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680040.

Assessing Physics Learning Identity: Survey Development and Validation
Sissi L. Li and Dedra Demaree
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 247-250, doi:10.1063/1.3680041
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Innovative curricula aim to improve content knowledge and the goal of helping students develop practices and skills of authentic scientist through active engagement learning. To students, these classroom practices often seem very different from their previous learning experiences in terms of behavioral expectations, learning attitude, and what learning means. We propose that productive participation in these learning environments require students to modify their identity as learners in addition to refining their science conceptual understanding. In order to measure changes in learning identity, we developed a 49-item survey to assess students' 1) expectations of student and teacher roles, 2) self efficacy towards skills supported in the Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) and 3) attitudes towards social learning. Using principle components exploratory factor analysis, we have established two reliable factors with subscales that measure these student characteristics. This paper presents the survey development, validation and pilot study results.

S. L. Li and D. Demaree, Assessing Physics Learning Identity: Survey Development and Validation, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 247-250 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680041.

Using Analogical Problem Solving with Different Scaffolding Supports to Learn about Friction
Shih-Yin Lin and Chandralekha Singh
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 251-254, doi:10.1063/1.3680042
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Prior research suggests that many students believe that the magnitude of the static frictional force is always equal to its maximum value. Here, we examine introductory students' ability to learn from analogical reasoning (with different scaffolding supports provided) between two problems that are similar in terms of the physics principle involved but one problem involves static friction, which often triggers the misleading notion. To help students process through the analogy deeply and contemplate whether the static frictional force was at its maximum value, students in different recitation classrooms received different scaffolding support. We discuss students' performance in different groups.

S. Lin and C. Singh, Using Analogical Problem Solving with Different Scaffolding Supports to Learn about Friction, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 251-254 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680042.

TA-designed vs. research-oriented problem solutions
Shih-Yin Lin, Chandralekha Singh, William Mamudi, Charles R. Henderson, and Edit Yerushalmi
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 255-258, doi:10.1063/1.3680043
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In order to study graduate teaching assistants (TAs) beliefs and values about the design of instructor problem solutions, twenty-four TAs were provided with different solutions and asked to discuss their preferences for prominent solution features. TAs preferences for solution features were examined in light of the modeling of expert-like problem solving process as recommended in the literature. Results suggest that while many of the features TAs valued align with expert-like problem solving approaches, they noticed primarily "surface features" of solutions. Moreover, self-reported preferences did not match well with the solutions TAs wrote on their own.

S. Lin, C. Singh, W. Mamudi, C. R. Henderson, and E. Yerushalmi, TA-designed vs. research-oriented problem solutions, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 255-258 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680043.

The effect of immigration status on physics identity and physical science career intentions
Florin D. Lung, Geoff Potvin, Gerhard Sonnert, and Philip M. Sadler
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 259-262, doi:10.1063/1.3680044
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Using data collected from a nationally-representative sample of first-year college students, we examine how students' identity development as physics persons and their likelihood to pursue a career in physical science is predicted by differing immigrant experiences. We consider broad factors having a social, economic, or cultural nature as covariates in a propensity score model that assesses differences due to immigrant generation. Our results show that, when controlling for such factors as race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, and gender, students' physics identities and the likelihood of choosing a career in physical science are significantly higher amongst first generation students than second generation (or later) students. We conclude that physical science as a career option can be influenced by the experiences of being an immigrant and through the relationship between origin and host culture.

F. D. Lung, G. Potvin, G. Sonnert, and P. M. Sadler, The effect of immigration status on physics identity and physical science career intentions, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 259-262 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680044.

Should students be provided diagrams or asked to draw them while solving introductory physics problems?
Alexandru Maries and Chandralekha Singh
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 263-266, doi:10.1063/1.3680045
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Drawing appropriate diagrams is a useful problem solving heuristic that can transform a given problem into a representation that is easier to exploit for solving it. A major focus while helping introductory physics students learn problem solving is to help them appreciate that drawing diagrams facilitates problem solution. We conducted an investigation in which 111 students in an algebra-based introductory physics course were subjected to two different interventions during recitation quizzes throughout the semester. They were either (1) asked to solve problems in which the diagrams were drawn for them or (2) explicitly told to draw a diagram. A comparison group was not given any instruction regarding diagrams. We developed a rubric to score the problem-solving performance of students in different intervention groups. Here, we present some surprising results for problems which involve considerations of initial and final conditions.

A. Maries and C. Singh, Should students be provided diagrams or asked to draw them while solving introductory physics problems?, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 263-266 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680045.

Do prescribed prompts prime sensemaking during group problem solving?
Mathew "Sandy" Martinuk and Joss Ives
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 267-270, doi:10.1063/1.3680046
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Many researchers and textbooks have promoted the use of rigid prescribed strategies for encouraging development of expert-like problem-solving behavior in novice students. The University of British Columbia's introductory algebra-based course for non-physics majors uses Context-Rich problems with a prescribed six-step strategy. We have coded audio recordings of group problem-solving sessions to analyze students' epistemological framing based on the implicit goal of their discussions. By treating the goal of "understanding the physics of the situation" as sensemaking, we argue that prescribed problem-solving prompts are not sufficient to induce subsequent sensemaking discussion.

M. ". Martinuk and J. Ives, Do prescribed prompts prime sensemaking during group problem solving?, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 267-270 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680046.

Evidence of students' content reasoning in relation to measure of reform
Mojgan Matloob Haghanikar, Sytil K. Murphy, and Dean A. Zollman
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 271-274, doi:10.1063/1.3680047
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As part of a study of the science preparation of elementary school teachers, we investigated the quality of students' reasoning and explored the relationship between sophistication of reasoning and the degree to which the courses are considered inquiry oriented. First, we devised written content questions, which were open ended with the distinguishing feature of applying recently learned concepts in a new context. All the questions developed were based on a common template that required students to recognize and generalize the relevant facts or concepts and their interrelationships to suggest an applicable or plausible theory. To evaluate students' answers, we developed a rubric based on Bloom's taxonomy as revised and expanded by Anderson. Along with analyzing students' reasoning, we visited 20 universities and observed the courses in which the students were enrolled. We ranked the courses with respect to characteristics that are valued for the inquiry courses. With the large amount of collected data, we found that the likelihood of the higher cognitive processes are in favor of classes with higher measures of inquiry.

M. M. Haghanikar, S. K. Murphy, and D. A. Zollman, Evidence of students' content reasoning in relation to measure of reform, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 271-274 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680047.

Student Views of Similarity between Math and Physics Problems
Dyan L. McBride
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 275-278, doi:10.1063/1.3680048
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It is commonly known that students have difficulty connecting the techniques they learn in math classes with necessary steps for solving physics problems. In this study, introductory-level physics students were given a set of pure math problems and a set of physics problems that required them to use the exact same mathematical processes. The students were then asked to pair the analogous problems and explain the pairings. Presented here are the results of that study, which support previous findings that students have difficulty determining how the two are connected and give some insight into what can be done to help scaffold that connection in the future.

D. L. McBride, Student Views of Similarity between Math and Physics Problems, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 275-278 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680048.

Criteria for Creating and Categorizing Forms of Energy
Sarah B. McKagan, Rachel E. Scherr, Eleanor W. Close, and Hunter G. Close
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 279-282, doi:10.1063/1.3680049
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Traditional instruction on energy often presents forms of energy as a seemingly arbitrary list to be memorized, with little discussion of the meaning or purpose of these forms. Learners often struggle to make sense of these forms, and neither physicists nor physics educators are explicit about the criteria used to create these lists. This article presents our understanding of the meaning and purpose of forms, based on (1) our understanding of how physicists have used forms and (2) our observations of how elementary teachers create new forms and categorize existing forms in order to understand real-world problems. We propose that explicitly articulating the criteria used to identify forms of energy can empower teachers and students and help them to understand both the concept of energy and the nature of science.

S. B. McKagan, R. E. Scherr, E. W. Close, and H. G. Close, Criteria for Creating and Categorizing Forms of Energy, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 279-282 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680049.

Finding meaningful search features for automated analysis of short responses to conceptual questions
Christopher M. Nakamura, Sytil K. Murphy, Michael Christel, Scott M. Stevens, and Dean A. Zollman
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 283-286, doi:10.1063/1.3680050
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The Pathway Active Learning Environment synthetic tutoring system is capable of collecting large numbers of students' short responses to open-ended questions. The analysis of these responses may provide insight into the utility of the system, as well as information about student understanding of physics. The free-response nature of our data lends itself to qualitative analysis, however large data sets benefit from automated analysis. Natural language processing and data mining approaches, such as clustering, have been of interest across a variety of fields for automating the analysis of qualitative data. However, content-specific vocabulary, an abundance of search features, some of which are irrelevant, and inherent limitations on computers' abilities to match meaning are challenges that must be overcome. In this paper we discuss an analysis protocol for training computer models for automated data analysis. The preliminary analysis of two sample questions is presented, demonstrating a baseline of success.

C. M. Nakamura, S. K. Murphy, M. Christel, S. M. Stevens, and D. A. Zollman, Finding meaningful search features for automated analysis of short responses to conceptual questions, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 283-286 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680050.

Development of a Mechanics Reasoning Inventory
Andrew Pawl, Analia Barrantes, Caroline N. Cardamone, Saif Rayyan, and David E. Pritchard
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 287-290, doi:10.1063/1.3680051
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Strategic knowledge is required to appropriately organize procedures and concepts to solve problems. We are developing a standardized instrument assessing strategic knowledge in the domain of introductory mechanics. This instrument is inspired in part by Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning and Van Domelen's Problem Decomposition Diagnostic. The predictive validity of the instrument has been suggested by preliminary studies showing significant correlation with performance on final exams administered in introductory mechanics courses at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Georgia Institute of Technology. In order to study the validity of the content from the student's perspective, we have administered the instrument in free-response format to 40 students enrolled in calculus-based introductory mechanics at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville. This procedure has the additional advantage of improving the construct validity of the inventory, since student responses suggest effective distractors for the multiple-choice form of the inventory.

A. Pawl, A. Barrantes, C. N. Cardamone, S. Rayyan, and D. E. Pritchard, Development of a Mechanics Reasoning Inventory, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 287-290 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680051.

Facilitating Faculty Conversations: Development of Consensus Learning Goals
Rachel E. Pepper, Stephanie V. Chasteen, Steven J. Pollock, and Katherine K. Perkins
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 291-294, doi:10.1063/1.3680052
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Our upper-division course reform efforts at the University of Colorado start with expert input from non-PER faculty, and these conversations with faculty enrich and guide our course reforms. We have discovered additional benefits of these conversations, such as the fact that they serve as a forum for discussions of pedagogy and PER. However, it is not always obvious - to the faculty or to the PER researchers - what approach will lead to successful meetings. During the process of several course transformations we have met with diverse faculty to generate consensus learning goals and course assessments. We describe the general approach used to structure and facilitate these meetings, and include details on what these meetings entailed, how we achieved broad participation and productive conversations, as well as potential pitfalls to avoid.

R. E. Pepper, S. V. Chasteen, S. J. Pollock, and K. K. Perkins, Facilitating Faculty Conversations: Development of Consensus Learning Goals, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 291-294 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680052.

Towards research-based strategies for using PhET simulations in middle school physical science classes
Katherine K. Perkins, Emily Moore, Noah S. Podolefsky, Kelly Lancaster, and Christine Denison
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 295-298, doi:10.1063/1.3680053
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The PhET Interactive Simulations Project at the University of Colorado Boulder has begun a new effort to develop and research simulations ('sims') for middle school physical science. PhET sims have typically been aimed at the college level, but many sims are used in middle school classrooms. Thus, we aim to study the use of PhET sims at this level more systematically, particularly investigating elements of effective sim design and classroom implementation. Over the past year, we have collected observations of middle school students and teachers using PhET simulations. These observations include more than 80 student interviews as well as classroom implementations from 5th-8th grade by 4 different teachers. In this paper, we present initial insights that are emerging from these observations and propose several strategies for designing and implementing simulation activities. We include concrete examples of activities where these strategies have been used effectively.

K. K. Perkins, E. Moore, N. S. Podolefsky, K. Lancaster, and C. Denison, Towards research-based strategies for using PhET simulations in middle school physical science classes, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 295-298 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680053.

Context Dependence of Teacher Practices in Middle School Science
Noah S. Podolefsky and Katherine K. Perkins
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 299-302, doi:10.1063/1.3680054
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Conventional wisdom is that teachers have a model of teaching that they enact in the classroom. We studied middle school science teachers and found that the conventional wisdom does not explain large variations in practices for the same teachers in different contexts. During a study of PhET simulations, we observed two teachers in their regular (non-sim) classes and then in after-school classes in which they used PhET sims and activities developed by the PhET group. These activities were designed to be student-centered and inquiry-based. We find that one teacher led student-centered, inquiry-based activity in their regular classes but, in the after-school classes, controlled the classroom so that the sim activities were teacher-centered. The other teacher led teacher-centered regular classes, while enacting the sim activities in student-centered ways. We observe that teachers’ practices can be significantly different across contexts, suggesting a sophisticated view of teacher practice is needed.

N. S. Podolefsky and K. K. Perkins, Context Dependence of Teacher Practices in Middle School Science, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 299-302 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680054.

Issues and Progress in Transforming a Middle-division Classical Mechanics/Math Methods Course
Steven J. Pollock, Rachel E. Pepper, and Alysia D. Marino
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 303-306, doi:10.1063/1.3680055
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The physics department at the University of Colorado, Boulder has recently begun the transformation of its Classical Mechanics/Math Methods course, a middle-division course taken primarily by sophomore physics majors. We discuss the process of course transformation, including holding faculty meetings to create consensus learning goals and a conceptual diagnostic, and adopting, adapting and creating course materials and structures. We also report preliminary observations of student learning gains, student attitudes towards the transformation, and common student difficulties with the course material. We also discuss ongoing plans for the course transformation.

S. J. Pollock, R. E. Pepper, and A. D. Marino, Issues and Progress in Transforming a Middle-division Classical Mechanics/Math Methods Course, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 303-306 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680055.

Multiple roles of assessment in upper-division physics course reforms
Steven J. Pollock, Rachel E. Pepper, Stephanie V. Chasteen, and Katherine K. Perkins
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 307-310, doi:10.1063/1.3680056
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The University of Colorado at Boulder has been involved in a systematic program of upper-division undergraduate course transformations. The role of assessment has been critical at multiple, interconnected scales: (1) formative evaluation focused on the course itself in the design phase; (2) formative assessment focused on students in the instructional phase and (3) summative assessment to determine student performance and the success of course design. We summarize the role and nature of assessments at each of these levels. At the design scale, investigative measures include observations and surveys of students and student work. In the classroom, assessments to determine and address student difficulties include clicker questions and tutorials. At the summative scale, assessments include faculty interviews and course and tutorial-scale posttests. We discuss examples, affordances, outcomes, and challenges associated with these different layers of assessments at the upper-division level.

S. J. Pollock, R. E. Pepper, S. V. Chasteen, and K. K. Perkins, Multiple roles of assessment in upper-division physics course reforms, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 307-310 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680056.

Adapting a theoretical framework for characterizing students' use of equations in physics problem solving
Carina M. Rebello and N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 311-314, doi:10.1063/1.3680057
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Previous studies have focused on the resources that students activate and utilize while solving a given physics problem. However, few studies explore how students relate a given resource such as an equation, to various types of physics problems and contexts and how they ascertain the meaning and applicability of that resource. We explore how students view physics equations, derive meaning from those equations, and use those equations in physics problem solving. We adapt Dubinsky and McDonald's description of APOS (action-process-object-schema) theory of learning in mathematics, to construct a theoretical framework that describes how students interpret and use equations in physics in terms of actions, processes, objects, and schemas. This framework provides a lens for understanding how students construct their understanding of physics concepts and their relation to equations. We highlight how APOS theory can be operationalized to serve as a lens for studying the use of mathematics in physics problem solving.

C. M. Rebello and N. S. Rebello, Adapting a theoretical framework for characterizing students' use of equations in physics problem solving, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 311-314 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680057.

How accurately can students estimate their performance on an exam and how does this relate to their actual performance on the exam?
N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 315-318, doi:10.1063/1.3680058
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Research has shown students' beliefs regarding their own abilities in math and science can influence their performance in these disciplines. I investigated the relationship between students' estimated performance and actual performance on five exams in a second semester calculus-based physics class. Students in a second-semester calculus-based physics class were given about 72 hours after the completion of each of five exams, to estimate their individual and class mean score on each exam. Students were given extra credit worth 1% of the exam points for estimating their score correct within 2% of the actual score and another 1% extra credit for estimating the class mean score within 2% of the correct value. I compared students' individual and mean score estimations with the actual scores to investigate the relationship between estimation accuracies and exam performance of the students as well as trends over the semester.

N. S. Rebello, How accurately can students estimate their performance on an exam and how does this relate to their actual performance on the exam?, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 315-318 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680058.

Communicating scientific ideas: One element of physics expertise
Idaykis Rodriguez, Renee Michelle Goertzen, Eric Brewe, and Laird H. Kramer
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 319-322, doi:10.1063/1.3680059
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In this paper we present an alternative perspective to physics expertise research. Using Lave and Wenger's theoretical perspective of Legitimate Peripheral Participation [4] as a guide to understanding expertise development, we redefine expertise from the perspective of physicists. We analyze data from an ethnographic, qualitative study of a physics research group and draw data from multiple sources to triangulate a definition of expert. Results show that a very critical part of becoming a physics expert in this physics research group is communicating one's scientific ideas through writing. Students perceive scientific writing as an important aspect of participating in the research group and it is a significant discussion point in the research meetings. Thus, it appears that learning to write a scientific paper is a process congruent to developing physics expertise.

I. Rodriguez, R. M. Goertzen, E. Brewe, and L. H. Kramer, Communicating scientific ideas: One element of physics expertise, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 319-322 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680059.

Following Student Gaze Patterns in Physical Science Lectures
David Rosengrant, Doug Hearrington, Kerriann Alvarado, and Danielle Keeble
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 323-326, doi:10.1063/1.3680060
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This study investigates the gaze patterns of undergraduate college students attending a lecture-based physical science class to better understand the relationships between gaze and focus patterns and student attention during class. The investigators used a new eye-tracking product; Tobii Glasses. The glasses eliminate the need for subjects to focus on a computer screen or carry around a backpack-sized recording device, thus giving an investigator the ability to study a broader range of research questions. This investigation includes what students focus on in the classroom (i.e. demonstrations, instructor, notes, board work, and presentations) during a normal lecture, what diverts attention away from being on task as well as what keeps a subject on task. We report on the findings from 8 subjects during physical science lectures designed for future elementary school teachers. We found that students tended not to focus on the instructor for most parts of the lecture but rather the information, particularly new information presented on PowerPoint slides. Finally, we found that location in the classroom also impacted students' attention spans due to more distractors.

D. Rosengrant, D. Hearrington, K. Alvarado, and D. Keeble, Following Student Gaze Patterns in Physical Science Lectures, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 323-326 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680060.

Teacher-driven professional development and the pursuit of a sophisticated understanding of inquiry
Michael J. Ross, Ben Van Dusen, Samson Sherman, and Valerie K. Otero
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 327-330, doi:10.1063/1.3680061
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The need for highly qualified physics teachers in the U.S. is well established, and reform efforts are underway to develop novel and innovative teacher professional development experiences to improve the quality of K-12 physics education. Streamline to Mastery is an NSF-funded, learner-centered professional development program that seeks to capitalize on teachers' knowledge and experience to move physics teachers toward mastery in their fields. Teacher participants in this teacher-driven program choose their own goals and areas of growth. One of these areas has been the development and implementation of inquiry-oriented curriculum, as well as the adaptation of traditional lessons toward a greater inquiry orientation. Results indicate that teachers' conceptions of inquiry teaching and learning have become more expert-like as they have engaged in teacher participant-driven experiences in the pursuit of greater understanding and more effective classroom practice.

M. J. Ross, B. V. Dusen, S. Sherman, and V. K. Otero, Teacher-driven professional development and the pursuit of a sophisticated understanding of inquiry, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 327-330 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680061.

Comparing the development of students' conceptions of pulleys using physical and virtual manipulatives
Amy Rouinfar, Adrian M. Madsen, Tram Do Ngoc Hoang, Sadhana Puntambekar, and N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 331-334, doi:10.1063/1.3680062
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Research has shown that the concept of force in a pulley is learned equally well by students using physical and virtual manipulatives. We report on a study in which students enrolled in a conceptual physics laboratory spent two weeks investigating pulley systems using either physical or virtual manipulatives. Students were given written materials which guided them through a series of activities which scaffolded the construction of their conceptions of pulleys. Students were required to make predictions and then test these predictions by building and comparing different pulley systems. They were presented with a challenge to design the best pulley system to lift a piano at the end of each week. We compare how the students' conceptions of pulleys develop between the physical and virtual treatments as well as investigate the ways in which they use the manipulatives while completing the scaffolding activities.

A. Rouinfar, A. M. Madsen, T. D. N. Hoang, S. Puntambekar, and N. S. Rebello, Comparing the development of students' conceptions of pulleys using physical and virtual manipulatives, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 331-334 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680062.

Further investigation of examining students understanding of Lenz's law and Faraday's law
Casey W. Sanchez and Michael E. Loverude
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 335-338, doi:10.1063/1.3680063
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Magnetic induction has been known to be a particularly difficult concept in introductory physics. In this project, we build upon our previous research on probing the difficulties students have with magnetic flux in regards to Lenz's Law and Faraday's Law. This presentation will explore student responses when the format of the instrument was reversed, so that students had to use a flux vs. time graph to infer details of the physical situation. Although the newer version of the survey identifies other difficulties students have, the student responses suggest the value of this reverse process in both probing student thinking and in instruction on magnetic flux.

C. W. Sanchez and M. E. Loverude, Further investigation of examining students understanding of Lenz's law and Faraday's law, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 335-338 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680063.

Creating Opportunities to Influence Self-Efficacy through Modeling Instruction
Vashti Sawtelle, Eric Brewe, Renee Michelle Goertzen, and Laird H. Kramer
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 339-342, doi:10.1063/1.3680064
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In this paper we present an initial analysis connecting key elements of Modeling Instruction (MI) to self-efficacy experience opportunities. Previously, we demonstrated that MI has positive effects on self-efficacy when compared with traditional Lecture instruction. We also found a particularly strong positive effect on the social persuasion source of self-efficacy for women in the MI class. Our current study seeks to understand through what mechanisms MI influences self-efficacy. We demonstrate this connection through an in-depth analysis of video chosen to exemplify Modeling techniques used in a problem-solving episode by three female participants enrolled in a MI introductory physics class. We provide a rich and descriptive analysis of the self-efficacy experiences opportunities within this context and discuss how these opportunities provide a potential explanation of how MI influences self-efficacy.

V. Sawtelle, E. Brewe, R. M. Goertzen, and L. H. Kramer, Creating Opportunities to Influence Self-Efficacy through Modeling Instruction, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 339-342 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680064.

Intuitive ontologies for energy in physics
Rachel E. Scherr, Hunter G. Close, and Sarah B. McKagan
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 343-346, doi:10.1063/1.3680065
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The nature of energy is not typically an explicit topic of physics instruction. Nonetheless, participants in physics courses that involve energy are frequently saying what kind of thing they think energy is, both verbally and nonverbally. Physics textbooks also provide discourse suggesting the nature of energy as conceptualized by disciplinary experts. The premise of an embodied cognition theoretical perspective is that we understand the kinds of things that may exist in the world (ontology) in terms of sensorimotor experiences such as object permanence and movement. We offer examples of intuitive ontologies for energy that we have observed in classroom contexts and physics texts, including energy as a quasi-material substance; as a stimulus to action; and as a vertical location. Each of the intuitive ontologies we observe has features that contribute to a valid understanding of energy. The quasi-material substance metaphor best supports understanding energy as a conserved quantity.

R. E. Scherr, H. G. Close, and S. B. McKagan, Intuitive ontologies for energy in physics, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 343-346 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680065.

Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse
Rachel E. Scherr, Hunter G. Close, and Sarah B. McKagan
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 347-350, doi:10.1063/1.3680066
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The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

R. E. Scherr, H. G. Close, and S. B. McKagan, Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 347-350 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680066.

What are the effects of self-assessment preparation in a middle school science classroom?
Sara E. Severance
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 351-354, doi:10.1063/1.3680067
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This research was conducted by an urban middle school science teacher who sought to investigate the effects of self-assessment on student performance. A group of students were asked to give themselves a score on each learning target assessed in class and to provide evidence for their decision. Student self-assessment scores were compared to scores given by the teacher to see if students who accurately assessed their own learning scored higher on final assessments than students who did not. Assessment scores between groups of students who completed the self-assessment preparation and students who did not were also analyzed. The data indicates no correlation between the ability to self-assess and achievement. However, further implications on self-assessment at the secondary level are discussed.

S. E. Severance, What are the effects of self-assessment preparation in a middle school science classroom?, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 351-354 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680067.

Students' understanding of the addition of angular momentum
Chandralekha Singh and Guangtian Zhu
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 355-358, doi:10.1063/1.3680068
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We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with concepts related to the addition of angular momentum. We also describe the development and implementation of a research-based learning tool, a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT), to reduce these difficulties. The preliminary evaluation shows that the QuILT on the addition of angular momentum is helpful in improving students' understanding of these concepts.

C. Singh and G. Zhu, Students' understanding of the addition of angular momentum, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 355-358 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680068.

A longitudinal study of the development of attitudes and beliefs towards physics
Katherine A. Slaughter, Simon P. Bates, and Ross K. Galloway
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 359-362, doi:10.1063/1.3680069
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Student success in a physics degree has been shown to depend on more than just performance in course assessment: important additional factors include student attitudes and beliefs about their subject. We have used an instrument (CLASS) that measures how student epistemologies evolve over the course of their undergraduate degree. Our previous work has sampled a cross-section of students at all levels across the physics undergraduate programme at Edinburgh in a single academic year, and found that student attitudes and beliefs remain essentially static. Here, we present fully longitudinal data collected over the past three years, where we track the evolution of the attitudes and beliefs of one group of students. We find broadly similar results: attitudes and beliefs remain surprisingly consistent over time. This suggests that a 'cross-sectional' or 'pseudo-longitudinal' study (collecting snapshot data in one year) is a valid methodology, rather than necessarily having to wait several years to accumulate truly longitudinal data.

K. A. Slaughter, S. P. Bates, and R. K. Galloway, A longitudinal study of the development of attitudes and beliefs towards physics, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 359-362 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680069.

Toward an Analytic Framework of Physics Teaching Assistants’ Pedagogical Knowledge
Benjamin T. Spike and Noah D. Finkelstein
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 363-366, doi:10.1063/1.3680070
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Graduate Teaching Assistants (TAs) are the subject of increasing attention in education research, both as partners in supporting the goals of research-based curricula, and as future faculty learning about the nature of physics instruction. In previous work, we began documenting TA beliefs and presented two contrasting case studies of TA beliefs about teaching physics. In this paper, we begin to build a framework that identifies categories of epistemological and pedagogical resources that TAs draw upon when talking about and when engaging in teaching practices. By applying this framework to observations and interviews of a set of TAs from an introductory physics course, we demonstrate emergent differences in how these instructors talk about their own teaching, as well as examples of how these differences appear to be reflected in their framing of the instructional activity. We conclude with implications for teacher preparation and professional development at the graduate level.

B. T. Spike and N. D. Finkelstein, Toward an Analytic Framework of Physics Teaching Assistants’ Pedagogical Knowledge, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 363-366 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680070.

Examining student ability to interpret and use potential energy diagrams for classical systems
Brian M. Stephanik and Peter S. Shaffer
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 367-370, doi:10.1063/1.3680071
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The Physics Education Group at the University of Washington is examining the extent to which students are able to use graphs of potential energy vs. position to infer kinematic and dynamic quantities for a system. The findings indicate that many students have difficulty in relating the graphs to real-world systems. Some problems seem to be graphical in nature (e.g., interpreting graphs of potential energy vs. position as graphs of position vs. time). Others involve relating the graphs to total, kinetic, and potential energies, especially when the potential energy is negative. The results have implications beyond the introductory level since graphs of potential energy are used in advanced courses on classical and quantum mechanics.

B. M. Stephanik and P. S. Shaffer, Examining student ability to interpret and use potential energy diagrams for classical systems, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 367-370 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680071.

Faculty Perspectives about Instructor and Institutional Assessments of Teaching Effectiveness
Chandra Turpen, Charles R. Henderson, and Melissa H. Dancy
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 371-374, doi:10.1063/1.3680072
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Faculty and their institutions should have a shared set of metrics by which they measure teaching effectiveness. Unfortunately, the current situation at most institutions is far from this ideal. As part of a larger interview study, physics faculty were asked to describe how they and their institutions evaluate teaching effectiveness. Institutions typically base most or all of their assessment of teaching effectiveness on the numerical ratings from student evaluations of teaching effectiveness. Faculty, on the other hand, base most or all of their assessment of teaching effectiveness on student test performance and ongoing formative assessments. In general, faculty are much more positive about the methods that they use to evaluate their teaching than the methods that their institution uses to evaluate their teaching.

C. Turpen, C. R. Henderson, and M. H. Dancy, Faculty Perspectives about Instructor and Institutional Assessments of Teaching Effectiveness, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 371-374 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680072.

Changing Roles and Identities in a Teacher-Driven Professional Development Community
Ben Van Dusen and Valerie K. Otero
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 375-378, doi:10.1063/1.3680073
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In a climate where teachers feel de-professionalized at the hands of regulations, testing, and politics, it is vital that teachers become empowered both in their own teaching and as agents of change. This physics education research study investigates the “Streamline to Mastery” professional development program, in which the teachers design professional development opportunities for themselves and for fellow teachers. The research reported here describes the process of teacher professional growth through changes in roles and identities. Videos, emails, and interviews were analyzed to glean insight into practice and participation shifts as these physical science teachers formed a community and engaged in their own classroom research. Implications for the role of PER in teacher professional development and teacher preparation will be discussed.

B. V. Dusen and V. K. Otero, Changing Roles and Identities in a Teacher-Driven Professional Development Community, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 375-378 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680073.

Assessment of vertical transfer in problem solving: Mapping the problem design space
Joshua Von Korff, Dehui Hu, and N. Sanjay Rebello
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 379-382, doi:10.1063/1.3680074
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In schema-based theories of cognition, vertical transfer occurs when a learner constructs a new schema to solve a transfer task or chooses between several possible schemas. Vertical transfer is interesting to study, but difficult to measure. Did the student solve the problem using the desired schema or by an alternative method? Perhaps the problem cued the student to use certain resources without knowing why? In this paper, we consider some of the threats to validity in problem design. We provide a theoretical framework to explain the challenges faced in designing vertical transfer problems, and we contrast these challenges with horizontal transfer problem design. We have developed this framework from a set of problems that we tested on introductory mechanics students, and we illustrate the framework using one of the problems.

J. V. Korff, D. Hu, and N. S. Rebello, Assessment of vertical transfer in problem solving: Mapping the problem design space, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 379-382 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680074.

Evidence of embodied cognition about wave propagation
Michael C. Wittmann and Evan A. Chase
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 383-386, doi:10.1063/1.3680075
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That students think of wavepulses as if throwing balls down a long taut spring is well established. Typical questions involve students imagining the spring already pulled taut; a different scenario would imagine them pulling the spring tight first. This situation creates a different baseline of physical experience from which to reason. For example, it provides a physical experience in which tension is a relevant measure in the system. We investigated the effects of students pulling the spring (or not) in interviews after instruction. We also wrote two surveys, each giving a different physical description of a typical problem. From interviews, we find evidence that a different embodiment of the problem affects students' responses. In surveys, with students asked to imagine different situations, we found no such evidence.

M. C. Wittmann and E. A. Chase, Evidence of embodied cognition about wave propagation, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 383-386 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680075.

Students' Difficulties with Quantum Measurement
Guangtian Zhu and Chandralekha Singh
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 387-390, doi:10.1063/1.3680076
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We describe some common difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with concepts related to quantum measurement. We administered written tests to students enrolled in quantum mechanics courses and interviewed a subset of them to probe the difficulties in-depth and analyze their possible origins. Results from this research can be applied to develop learning tools to improve students' understanding of quantum measurement.

G. Zhu and C. Singh, Students' Difficulties with Quantum Measurement, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 387-390 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680076.

Transforming the advanced lab: Part I - Learning goals
Benjamin M. Zwickl, Noah D. Finkelstein, and H. J. Lewandowski
AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, pp. 391-394, doi:10.1063/1.3680077
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Within the physics education research community relatively little attention has been given to laboratory courses, especially at the upper-division undergraduate level. As part of transforming our senior-level Optics and Modern Physics Lab at the University of Colorado Boulder we are developing learning goals, revising curricula, and creating assessments. In this paper, we report on the establishment of our learning goals and a surrounding framework that have emerged from discussions with a wide variety of faculty, from a review of the literature on labs, and from identifying the goals of existing lab courses. Our goals go beyond those of specific physics content and apparatus, allowing instructors to personalize them to their contexts. We report on four broad themes and associated learning goals: Modeling (math-physics-data connection, statistical error analysis, systematic error, modeling of engineered "black boxes"), Design (of experiments, apparatus, programs, troubleshooting), Communication, and Technical Lab Skills (computer-aided data analysis, LabVIEW, test and measurement equipment).

B. M. Zwickl, N. D. Finkelstein, and H. J. Lewandowski, Transforming the advanced lab: Part I - Learning goals, 2011 PERC Proceedings [Omaha, NE, August 3-4, 2011], edited by N. S. Rebello, P. V. Engelhardt, and C. Singh [AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 391-394 (2012)], doi:10.1063/1.3680077.