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written by Jonathan Velasco, Adam Knedeisen, Dihua Xue, Trisha L. Vickrey, Marytza Abebe, and Marilyne Stains
Chemistry laboratories play an essential role in the education of undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) and non-STEM students. The extent of student learning in any educational environment depends largely on the effectiveness of the instructors. In chemistry laboratories at large universities, the instructors of record are typically graduate or undergraduate teaching assistants (TAs). Despite the importance of their role in the education of undergraduate students, TAs' instructional practices have been largely understudied outside specific reform efforts. In this study, we developed a segmented observation protocol, the Laboratory Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM (LOPUS), in order to characterize TAs' instructional styles in a General Chemistry laboratory curriculum. LOPUS captures both students' and TAs' behaviors every 2 min as well as initiators of verbal interactions and the nature of these verbal interactions (e.g., data analysis, explanation of concepts). Analyses of 19 videos collected from 15 TAs resulted in the identification of four instructional styles: the waiters, the busy bees, the observers, and the guides on-the-side. We found that students' behaviors were independent of these styles and limited to performing the laboratory activities, initiating conversation with TAs, and asking TAs questions. Interestingly, students rather than TAs were initiators of most verbal interactions, regardless of TAs' instructional styles. Finally, we found that the nature of TA–student verbal interactions was related to the nature of the laboratory activity (e.g., only following step-by-step instructions versus carrying out extensive data analysis). Implications of these findings for future research investigations and TA training are discussed.
Journal of Chemical Education: Volume 93, Issue 7, Pages 1191-1203
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Education - Applied Research
- Teacher Preparation
= Teacher Assessment
Education - Basic Research
- Assessment
= Instruments
- Teacher Characteristics
= Affect
Other Sciences
- Chemistry
- Professional Development
- Lower Undergraduate
- Reference Material
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= Research study
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© 2016 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created July 18, 2018 by Bruce Mason
Record Updated:
July 18, 2018 by Bruce Mason
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when Cataloged:
April 8, 2016
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AIP Format
J. Velasco, A. Knedeisen, D. Xue, T. Vickrey, M. Abebe, and M. Stains, J. Chem. Educ. 93 (7), 1191 (2016), WWW Document, (https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00062).
AJP/PRST-PER
J. Velasco, A. Knedeisen, D. Xue, T. Vickrey, M. Abebe, and M. Stains, Characterizing Instructional Practices in the Laboratory: The Laboratory Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM, J. Chem. Educ. 93 (7), 1191 (2016), <https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00062>.
APA Format
Velasco, J., Knedeisen, A., Xue, D., Vickrey, T., Abebe, M., & Stains, M. (2016, April 8). Characterizing Instructional Practices in the Laboratory: The Laboratory Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM. J. Chem. Educ., 93(7), 1191-1203. Retrieved May 28, 2020, from https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00062
Chicago Format
Velasco, J, A. Knedeisen, D. Xue, T. Vickrey, M. Abebe, and M. Stains. "Characterizing Instructional Practices in the Laboratory: The Laboratory Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM." J. Chem. Educ. 93, no. 7, (April 8, 2016): 1191-1203, https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00062 (accessed 28 May 2020).
MLA Format
Velasco, Jonathan, Adam Knedeisen, Dihua Xue, Trisha L. Vickrey, Marytza Abebe, and Marilyne Stains. "Characterizing Instructional Practices in the Laboratory: The Laboratory Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM." J. Chem. Educ. 93.7 (2016): 1191-1203. 28 May 2020 <https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00062>.
BibTeX Export Format
@article{ Author = "Jonathan Velasco and Adam Knedeisen and Dihua Xue and Trisha L. Vickrey and Marytza Abebe and Marilyne Stains", Title = {Characterizing Instructional Practices in the Laboratory: The Laboratory Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM}, Journal = {J. Chem. Educ.}, Volume = {93}, Number = {7}, Pages = {1191-1203}, Month = {April}, Year = {2016} }
Refer Export Format

%A Jonathan Velasco
%A Adam Knedeisen
%A Dihua Xue
%A Trisha L. Vickrey
%A Marytza Abebe
%A Marilyne Stains
%T Characterizing Instructional Practices in the Laboratory: The Laboratory Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM
%J J. Chem. Educ.
%V 93
%N 7
%D April 8, 2016
%P 1191-1203
%U https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00062
%O application/pdf

EndNote Export Format

%0 Journal Article
%A Velasco, Jonathan
%A Knedeisen, Adam
%A Xue, Dihua
%A Vickrey, Trisha L.
%A Abebe, Marytza
%A Stains, Marilyne
%D April 8, 2016
%T Characterizing Instructional Practices in the Laboratory: The Laboratory Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM
%J J. Chem. Educ.
%V 93
%N 7
%P 1191-1203
%8 April 8, 2016
%U https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00062


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