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Physical Review Physics Education Research
written by Alessandra M. York, Angela Fink, Siera M. Stoen, Elise M. Walck-Shannon, Christopher Wally, Jia Luo, Jessica D. Young, and Regina F. Frey
Gender inequities continue to persist within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines, even at the undergraduate level. This has led researchers to further examine potential factors that contribute to retention and persistence of undergraduates in STEM fields. In this study using classroom observations, we examined gender equity in individual verbal participation in large introductory physics courses, and compared our results to observations in introductory courses in other STEM disciplines. We found that in introductory physics courses, men had disproportionately higher rates of individual verbal participation than women. Observation-level analysis confirmed that three-quarters (76.2%) of the physics observations had descriptively higher than expected participation by men and almost a quarter of observations (23.8%) were statistically significant for a gender imbalance in individual verbal participation. We then sought to determine if any pedagogical strategies or student behaviors correlated with a more equitable classroom to better understand what drives gender inequity in participation, and found three classroom behaviors--an increasing amount of instructor questions, group responses from students, and student questions--correspond with a more gender equitable classroom. Student-level survey data, which mirrors the observation data, also show that self-reported levels of individual participation have small, significant correlations with both course-level belonging and inclusivity. The introductory physics results were mostly replicated in the other STEM disciplines, despite their differences in course structure. This study extends the conversation on the relationship between active learning and equity in the classroom.
Physical Review Physics Education Research: Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 020140
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Education - Applied Research
- Classroom Management
- Learning Environment
- Recruitment
= Diversity
= Strategies
Education - Basic Research
- Behavior
= Social Interaction
- Research Design & Methodology
= Data
- Sample Population
= Gender
- Societal Issues
= Gender Issues
General Physics
- Physics Education Research
- Lower Undergraduate
- Graduate/Professional
- Reference Material
= Research study
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This material is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license.
Rights Holder:
American Physical Society
DOI:
10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.17.020140
Keywords:
educational equity, gender equity, gender imbalance, growth mindset, inclusivity, student attitudes, student belonging, student retention
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created December 28, 2021 by Lyle Barbato
Record Updated:
January 25, 2022 by Lyle Barbato
Last Update
when Cataloged:
December 2, 2021
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Record Link
AIP Format
A. York, A. Fink, S. Stoen, E. Walck-Shannon, C. Wally, J. Luo, J. Young, and R. Frey, , Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 17 (2), 020140 (2021), WWW Document, (https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.17.020140).
AJP/PRST-PER
A. York, A. Fink, S. Stoen, E. Walck-Shannon, C. Wally, J. Luo, J. Young, and R. Frey, Gender inequity in individual participation within physics and science, technology, engineering, and math courses, Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 17 (2), 020140 (2021), <https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.17.020140>.
APA Format
York, A., Fink, A., Stoen, S., Walck-Shannon, E., Wally, C., Luo, J., Young, J., & Frey, R. (2021, December 2). Gender inequity in individual participation within physics and science, technology, engineering, and math courses. Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res., 17(2), 020140. Retrieved October 1, 2022, from https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.17.020140
Chicago Format
York, A, A. Fink, S. Stoen, E. Walck-Shannon, C. Wally, J. Luo, J. Young, and R. Frey. "Gender inequity in individual participation within physics and science, technology, engineering, and math courses." Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 17, no. 2, (December 2, 2021): 020140, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.17.020140 (accessed 1 October 2022).
MLA Format
York, Alessandra M., Angela Fink, Siera M. Stoen, Elise M. Walck-Shannon, Christopher Wally, Jia Luo, Jessica D. Young, and Regina F. Frey. "Gender inequity in individual participation within physics and science, technology, engineering, and math courses." Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 17.2 (2021): 020140. 1 Oct. 2022 <https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.17.020140>.
BibTeX Export Format
@article{ Author = "Alessandra M. York and Angela Fink and Siera M. Stoen and Elise M. Walck-Shannon and Christopher Wally and Jia Luo and Jessica D. Young and Regina F. Frey", Title = {Gender inequity in individual participation within physics and science, technology, engineering, and math courses}, Journal = {Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res.}, Volume = {17}, Number = {2}, Pages = {020140}, Month = {December}, Year = {2021} }
Refer Export Format

%A Alessandra M. York %A Angela Fink %A Siera M. Stoen %A Elise M. Walck-Shannon %A Christopher Wally %A Jia Luo %A Jessica D. Young %A Regina F. Frey %T Gender inequity in individual participation within physics and science, technology, engineering, and math courses %J Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. %V 17 %N 2 %D December 2, 2021 %P 020140 %U https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.17.020140 %O application/pdf

EndNote Export Format

%0 Journal Article %A York, Alessandra M. %A Fink, Angela %A Stoen, Siera M. %A Walck-Shannon, Elise M. %A Wally, Christopher %A Luo, Jia %A Young, Jessica D. %A Frey, Regina F. %D December 2, 2021 %T Gender inequity in individual participation within physics and science, technology, engineering, and math courses %J Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. %V 17 %N 2 %P 020140 %8 December 2, 2021 %U https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.17.020140


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