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written by Anton E. Lawson
This paper presents a synthesis of what is currently known about the nature and development of scientific reasoning and why it plays a central role in acquiring scientific literacy. Science is viewed as a hypothetico-deductive (HD) enterprise engaging in the generation and test of alternative explanations. Explanation generation and test requires the use of several key reasoning patterns and sub-patterns. Reasoning at the highest level is complicated by the fact that scientific explanations generally involve the postulation of non-perceptible entities, thus arguments used in their test require sub-arguments to link the postulate under test with its deduced consequence. Science is HD in nature because this is how the brain spontaneously processes information whether it basic visual recognition, every-day descriptive and causal hypothesis testing, or advanced theory testing. The key point in terms of complex HD arguments is that if sufficient chunking of concepts and/or reasoning sub-patterns have not occurred, then one's attempt to construct and maintain such arguments in working memory and use them to draw conclusions and construct concepts will "fall apart." Thus, the conclusions and concepts will be "lost." Consequently, teachers must know what students bring with them in terms of their stages of intellectual development (i.e., preoperational, concrete, formal, or post-formal) and subject-specific declarative knowledge. Effective instruction mirrors the practice of science where students confront puzzling observations and then personally participate in the explanation generation and testing process – a process in which some of their ideas are contradicted by the evidence and by the arguments of others.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Education - Basic Research
- Cognition
= Cognition Development
- Student Characteristics
= Skills
General Physics
- Scientific Reasoning
- Graduate/Professional
- Reference Material
= Report
PER-Central Type Intended Users Ratings
- PER Literature
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- Professional/Practitioners
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© 2005 Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan
DOI:
10.1007/s10763-004-3224-2
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created February 24, 2022 by Adrian Madsen
Record Updated:
April 21, 2022 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
February 24, 2005
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Record Link
AIP Format
A. Lawson, , Int. J. Sci. Math. Educ. 2 (3), 307 (2005), WWW Document, (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-004-3224-2).
AJP/PRST-PER
A. Lawson, The Nature and Development of Scientific Reasoning: A Synthetic View, Int. J. Sci. Math. Educ. 2 (3), 307 (2005), <https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-004-3224-2>.
APA Format
Lawson, A. (2005, February 24). The Nature and Development of Scientific Reasoning: A Synthetic View. Int. J. Sci. Math. Educ., 2(3), 307-338. Retrieved June 23, 2024, from https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-004-3224-2
Chicago Format
Lawson, Anton E.. "The Nature and Development of Scientific Reasoning: A Synthetic View." Int. J. Sci. Math. Educ. 2, no. 3, (February 24, 2005): 307-338, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-004-3224-2 (accessed 23 June 2024).
MLA Format
Lawson, Anton E.. "The Nature and Development of Scientific Reasoning: A Synthetic View." Int. J. Sci. Math. Educ. 2.3 (2005): 307-338. 23 June 2024 <https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-004-3224-2>.
BibTeX Export Format
@article{ Author = "Anton E. Lawson", Title = {The Nature and Development of Scientific Reasoning: A Synthetic View}, Journal = {Int. J. Sci. Math. Educ.}, Volume = {2}, Number = {3}, Pages = {307-338}, Month = {February}, Year = {2005} }
Refer Export Format

%A Anton E. Lawson %T The Nature and Development of Scientific Reasoning: A Synthetic View %J Int. J. Sci. Math. Educ. %V 2 %N 3 %D February 24, 2005 %P 307-338 %U https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-004-3224-2 %O application/pdf

EndNote Export Format

%0 Journal Article %A Lawson, Anton E. %D February 24, 2005 %T The Nature and Development of Scientific Reasoning: A Synthetic View %J Int. J. Sci. Math. Educ. %V 2 %N 3 %P 307-338 %8 February 24, 2005 %U https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-004-3224-2


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The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

The AJP/PRST-PER presented is based on the AIP Style with the addition of journal article titles and conference proceeding article titles.

The APA Style presented is based on information from APA Style.org: Electronic References.

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