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written by Justin Kruger and David Dunning
People tend to hold overly favorable views of their abilities in many social and intellectual domains. The authors suggest that this overestimation occurs, in part, because people who are unskilled in these domains suffer a dual burden: not only do these people reach erroneous conclusions and make unfortunate choices, but their incompetence robs them of the metacognitive ability to realize it. Across 4 studies, the authors found that participants scoring in the bottom quartile on tests of humor, grammar, and logic grossly overestimated their test performance and ability. Although their test scores put them in the 12th percentile, they estimated themselves to be in the 62nd. Several analyses linked this miscalibration to deficits in metacognitive skill, or the capacity to distinguish accuracy from error. Paradoxically, improving the skills of the participants, and thus increasing their metacognitive competence, helped them recognize the limitations of their abilities.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Volume 77, Issue 6, Pages 1121-1134
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Education - Basic Research
- Assessment
= Self Assessment
- Cognition
- Problem Solving
= Metacognition
- Research Design & Methodology
= Data
= Evaluation
- Student Characteristics
= Ability
= Skills
- Lower Undergraduate
- Reference Material
= Research study
PER-Central Types Intended Users Ratings
- Curriculum
- Curriculum / Research Instrument
- Researchers
- Administrators
- Educators
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© 1999 American Psychological Association
DOI:
10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121
Keywords:
Competency Theory, Dunning-Kruger Effect, metacognition processes, metacognition research, self efficacy, social psychology
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created July 6, 2022 by Lauren Bauman
Record Updated:
August 1, 2022 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
January 1, 1999
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AIP Format
J. Kruger and D. Dunning, , Pers Soc Psychol 77 (6), 1121 (1999), WWW Document, (https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121).
AJP/PRST-PER
J. Kruger and D. Dunning, Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments., Pers Soc Psychol 77 (6), 1121 (1999), <https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121>.
APA Format
Kruger, J., & Dunning, D. (1999, January 1). Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments.. Pers Soc Psychol, 77(6), 1121-1134. Retrieved August 15, 2022, from https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121
Chicago Format
Kruger, Justin, and David Dunning. "Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments.." Pers Soc Psychol. 77, no. 6, (January 1, 1999): 1121-1134, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121 (accessed 15 August 2022).
MLA Format
Kruger, Justin, and David Dunning. "Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments.." Pers Soc Psychol 77.6 (1999): 1121-1134. 15 Aug. 2022 <https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121>.
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@article{ Author = "Justin Kruger and David Dunning", Title = {Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments.}, Journal = {Pers Soc Psychol}, Volume = {77}, Number = {6}, Pages = {1121-1134}, Month = {January}, Year = {1999} }
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%A Justin Kruger %A David Dunning %T Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. %J Pers Soc Psychol %V 77 %N 6 %D January 1, 1999 %P 1121-1134 %U https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121 %O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Journal Article %A Kruger, Justin %A Dunning, David %D January 1, 1999 %T Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. %J Pers Soc Psychol %V 77 %N 6 %P 1121-1134 %8 January 1, 1999 %U https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121


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