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Human Communication Research
written by Tae-Seop Lim and John Waite Bowers
This 1991 study extended Brown and Levinson's model of politeness in order to explain more complicated forms of interaction and proposed three different types of facework: solidarity, approbation, and tact. The effects of three social factors--relational intimacy, power difference, and the right to perform a given act in a given situation--on the three types of facework were examined. Relational intimacy was the strongest positive predictor of facework. Its effect was consistent across different types of facework and across different levels of power and right. The right to perform a certain act and speaker's power decreased facework, but these effects were mediated by relational intimacy, achieving significance mainly in distant relationships. The study also examined the relationships among different types of facework. Respondents used multiple types of facework when multiple face wants were threatened, and the use of one type of facework did not decrease the use of other types.

Editor's Note: The term "facework" is defined within the discipline of sociology as the communicative strategies used in maintaining or building social prestige (i.e., saving face).
Human Communication Research: Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 415-450
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Education - Applied Research
- Learning Environment
Education - Basic Research
- Behavior
- Student Characteristics
= Affect
- Teacher Characteristics
= Affect
- Graduate/Professional
- Reference Material
= Research study
PER-Central Type Intended Users Ratings
- PER Literature
- Researchers
- Educators
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© 1991 Oxford University Press
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Record Creator:
Metadata instance created July 6, 2022 by Lauren Bauman
Record Updated:
September 15, 2022 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
January 1, 1991
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Record Link
AIP Format
T. Lim and J. Bowers, , Hum. Commun. Res 17 (3), 415 (1991), WWW Document, (https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1991.tb00239.x).
T. Lim and J. Bowers, Facework Solidarity, Approbation, and Tact, Hum. Commun. Res 17 (3), 415 (1991), <https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1991.tb00239.x>.
APA Format
Lim, T., & Bowers, J. (1991, January 1). Facework Solidarity, Approbation, and Tact. Hum. Commun. Res, 17(3), 415-450. Retrieved September 25, 2022, from https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1991.tb00239.x
Chicago Format
Lim, Tae-Seop, and John Waite Bowers. "Facework Solidarity, Approbation, and Tact." Hum. Commun. Res. 17, no. 3, (January 1, 1991): 415-450, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1991.tb00239.x (accessed 25 September 2022).
MLA Format
Lim, Tae-Seop, and John Waite Bowers. "Facework Solidarity, Approbation, and Tact." Hum. Commun. Res 17.3 (1991): 415-450. 25 Sep. 2022 <https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1991.tb00239.x>.
BibTeX Export Format
@article{ Author = "Tae-Seop Lim and John Waite Bowers", Title = {Facework Solidarity, Approbation, and Tact}, Journal = {Hum. Commun. Res}, Volume = {17}, Number = {3}, Pages = {415-450}, Month = {January}, Year = {1991} }
Refer Export Format

%A Tae-Seop Lim %A John Waite Bowers %T Facework Solidarity, Approbation, and Tact %J Hum. Commun. Res %V 17 %N 3 %D January 1, 1991 %P 415-450 %U https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1991.tb00239.x %O application/pdf

EndNote Export Format

%0 Journal Article %A Lim, Tae-Seop %A Bowers, John Waite %D January 1, 1991 %T Facework Solidarity, Approbation, and Tact %J Hum. Commun. Res %V 17 %N 3 %P 415-450 %8 January 1, 1991 %@ 1468-2958 %U https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1991.tb00239.x

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