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Educational Psychologist
written by Johnmarshall Reeve
A recurring paradox in the contemporary K-12 classroom is that, although students educationally and developmentally benefit when teachers support their autonomy, teachers are often controlling during instruction. To understand and remedy this paradox, the article pursues three goals. First, the article characterizes the controlling style by defining it, articulating the conditions under which it is most likely to occur, linking it to poor student outcomes, explaining why it undermines these outcomes, identifying its manifest instructional behaviors, and differentiating it from an autonomy-supportive style. Second, the article identifies seven reasons to explain why the controlling style is so prevalent. These reasons show how pressures on teachers from above, from below, and from within can create classroom conditions that make the controlling style both understandable and commonplace. Third, the article offers a remedy to the paradox by articulating how teachers can become more autonomy supportive. Three essential tasks are discussed. Special attention is paid to practical examples of what teachers can do to support students' autonomy.
Educational Psychologist: Volume 44, Issue 3, Pages 159-175
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Education - Applied Research
- Pedagogy
- High School
- Middle School
- Elementary School
- Reference Material
= Article
PER-Central Types Intended Users Ratings
- Curriculum
- Curriculum / Pedagogy Guide
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© 2009 Informa UK, Ltd.
DOI:
10.1080/00461520903028990
Keywords:
Intrinsic motivation, Motivational Theory, active learning, motivational psychology, self efficacy, self regulation, student autonomy
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created July 7, 2022 by Lauren Bauman
Record Updated:
August 5, 2022 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
July 24, 2009
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Record Link
AIP Format
J. Reeve, , Educ. Psychol. 44 (3), 159 (2009), WWW Document, (https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903028990).
AJP/PRST-PER
J. Reeve, Why Teachers Adopt a Controlling Motivating Style Toward Students and How They Can Become More Autonomy Supportive, Educ. Psychol. 44 (3), 159 (2009), <https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903028990>.
APA Format
Reeve, J. (2009, July 24). Why Teachers Adopt a Controlling Motivating Style Toward Students and How They Can Become More Autonomy Supportive. Educ. Psychol., 44(3), 159-175. Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903028990
Chicago Format
Reeve, Johnmarshall. "Why Teachers Adopt a Controlling Motivating Style Toward Students and How They Can Become More Autonomy Supportive." Educ. Psychol. 44, no. 3, (July 24, 2009): 159-175, https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903028990 (accessed 5 December 2022).
MLA Format
Reeve, Johnmarshall. "Why Teachers Adopt a Controlling Motivating Style Toward Students and How They Can Become More Autonomy Supportive." Educ. Psychol. 44.3 (2009): 159-175. 5 Dec. 2022 <https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903028990>.
BibTeX Export Format
@article{ Author = "Johnmarshall Reeve", Title = {Why Teachers Adopt a Controlling Motivating Style Toward Students and How They Can Become More Autonomy Supportive}, Journal = {Educ. Psychol.}, Volume = {44}, Number = {3}, Pages = {159-175}, Month = {July}, Year = {2009} }
Refer Export Format

%A Johnmarshall Reeve %T Why Teachers Adopt a Controlling Motivating Style Toward Students and How They Can Become More Autonomy Supportive %J Educ. Psychol. %V 44 %N 3 %D July 24, 2009 %P 159-175 %U https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903028990 %O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Journal Article %A Reeve, Johnmarshall %D July 24, 2009 %T Why Teachers Adopt a Controlling Motivating Style Toward Students and How They Can Become More Autonomy Supportive %J Educ. Psychol. %V 44 %N 3 %P 159-175 %8 July 24, 2009 %U https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903028990


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