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written by Carol Dweck
During the past several decades, my colleagues and I have conducted research identifying two distinct ways in which individuals view intelligence and learning. Individuals with a fixed mindset believe that their intelligence is simply an inborn trait--they have a certain amount, and that's that. In contrast, individuals with a growth mindset believe that they can develop their intelligence over time. These two mindsets lead to different school behaviors. This article discusses strategies to prepare students for building a growth mindset and creating a culture of risk-taking.
Educational Leadership: Volume 68, Issue 1, Pages 1-5
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Education - Applied Research
- Learning Environment
Education - Basic Research
- Behavior
- Cognition
= Cognition Development
- Student Characteristics
= Affect
- High School
- Middle School
- Lower Undergraduate
- Reference Material
= Article
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© 2010 ASCD
Growth Mindset, instructonal strategies, student achievement, student buy-in, student engagement, student motivation, teaching methods
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created July 7, 2022 by Lauren Bauman
Record Updated:
August 16, 2022 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
January 1, 2010
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Record Link
AIP Format
C. Dweck, , Educ. Leader. 68 (1), 1 (2010), WWW Document, (https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/even-geniuses-work-hard).
C. Dweck, Even Geniuses Work Hard, Educ. Leader. 68 (1), 1 (2010), <https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/even-geniuses-work-hard>.
APA Format
Dweck, C. (2010, January 1). Even Geniuses Work Hard. Educ. Leader., 68(1), 1-5. Retrieved October 1, 2022, from https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/even-geniuses-work-hard
Chicago Format
Dweck, Carol. "Even Geniuses Work Hard." Educ. Leader. 68, no. 1, (January 1, 2010): 1-5, https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/even-geniuses-work-hard (accessed 1 October 2022).
MLA Format
Dweck, Carol. "Even Geniuses Work Hard." Educ. Leader. 68.1 (2010): 1-5. 1 Oct. 2022 <https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/even-geniuses-work-hard>.
BibTeX Export Format
@article{ Author = "Carol Dweck", Title = {Even Geniuses Work Hard}, Journal = {Educ. Leader.}, Volume = {68}, Number = {1}, Pages = {1-5}, Month = {January}, Year = {2010} }
Refer Export Format

%A Carol Dweck %T Even Geniuses Work Hard %J Educ. Leader. %V 68 %N 1 %D January 1, 2010 %P 1-5 %U https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/even-geniuses-work-hard %O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Journal Article %A Dweck, Carol %D January 1, 2010 %T Even Geniuses Work Hard %J Educ. Leader. %V 68 %N 1 %P 1-5 %8 January 1, 2010 %U https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/even-geniuses-work-hard

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The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

The AJP/PRST-PER presented is based on the AIP Style with the addition of journal article titles and conference proceeding article titles.

The APA Style presented is based on information from APA Style.org: Electronic References.

The Chicago Style presented is based on information from Examples of Chicago-Style Documentation.

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