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Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
written by Joshua Aronson, Carrie Fried, and Catherine Good
African American college students tend to obtain lower grades than their White counterparts, even when they enter college with equivalent test scores. Past research suggests that negative stereotypes impugning Black students' intellectual abilities play a role in this underperformance. Awareness of these stereotypes can psychologically threaten African Americans, a phenomenon known as "stereotype threat", which can in turn provoke responses that impair both academic performance and psychological engagement with academics. An experiment was performed to test a method of helping students resist these responses to stereotype threat. Specifically, students in the experimental condition of the experiment were encouraged to see intelligence--the object of the stereotype--as a malleable rather than fixed capacity. This mind-set was predicted to make students' performances less vulnerable to stereotype threat and help them maintain their psychological engagement with academics, both of which could help boost their college grades. Results were consistent with predictions. The African American students (and, to some degree, the White students) encouraged to view intelligence as malleable reported greater enjoyment of the academic process, greater academic engagement, and obtained higher grade point averages than their counterparts in two control groups.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology: Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 113-125
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Education - Applied Research
- Learning Environment
Education - Basic Research
- Achievement
- Learning Theory
- Sample Population
= Ethnicity or Race
- Societal Issues
= Race Issues
- Student Characteristics
= Affect
- Lower Undergraduate
- High School
- Upper Undergraduate
- Reference Material
= Research study
PER-Central Type Intended Users Ratings
- PER Literature
- Educators
- Professional/Practitioners
- Administrators
- Researchers
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© 2002 Elsevier, Inc.
DOI:
10.1006/jesp.2001.1491
ISSN Number:
0022-1031
Keywords:
Motivational Theory, educational equity, growth mindset, metacognition, reformed education
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created September 14, 2022 by Lauren Bauman
Record Updated:
November 22, 2022 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
September 18, 2002
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Record Link
AIP Format
J. Aronson, C. Fried, and C. Good, , J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 38 (2), 113 (2002), WWW Document, (https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2001.1491).
AJP/PRST-PER
J. Aronson, C. Fried, and C. Good, Reducing the Effects of Stereotype Threat on African American College Students by Shaping Theories of Intelligence, J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 38 (2), 113 (2002), <https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2001.1491>.
APA Format
Aronson, J., Fried, C., & Good, C. (2002, September 18). Reducing the Effects of Stereotype Threat on African American College Students by Shaping Theories of Intelligence. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. , 38(2), 113-125. Retrieved December 6, 2022, from https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2001.1491
Chicago Format
Aronson, J, C. Fried, and C. Good. "Reducing the Effects of Stereotype Threat on African American College Students by Shaping Theories of Intelligence." J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. . 38, no. 2, (September 18, 2002): 113-125, https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2001.1491 (accessed 6 December 2022).
MLA Format
Aronson, Joshua, Carrie Fried, and Catherine Good. "Reducing the Effects of Stereotype Threat on African American College Students by Shaping Theories of Intelligence." J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 38.2 (2002): 113-125. 6 Dec. 2022 <https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2001.1491>.
BibTeX Export Format
@article{ Author = "Joshua Aronson and Carrie Fried and Catherine Good", Title = {Reducing the Effects of Stereotype Threat on African American College Students by Shaping Theories of Intelligence}, Journal = {J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. }, Volume = {38}, Number = {2}, Pages = {113-125}, Month = {September}, Year = {2002} }
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%A Joshua Aronson %A Carrie Fried %A Catherine Good %T Reducing the Effects of Stereotype Threat on African American College Students by Shaping Theories of Intelligence %J J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. %V 38 %N 2 %D September 18, 2002 %P 113-125 %U https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2001.1491 %O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Journal Article %A Aronson, Joshua %A Fried, Carrie %A Good, Catherine %D September 18, 2002 %T Reducing the Effects of Stereotype Threat on African American College Students by Shaping Theories of Intelligence %J J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. %V 38 %N 2 %P 113-125 %8 September 18, 2002 %@ 0022-1031 %U https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2001.1491


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