S. Kuchemann, S. Malone, P. Edelsbrunner, A. Lichtenberger, E. Stern, R. Schumacher, R. Brünken, A. Vaterlaus, and J. Kuhn, Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res., **17** (2), 020126 (2021).

Representational competence is essential for the acquisition of conceptual understanding in physics. It enables the interpretation of diagrams, graphs, and mathematical equations,…

J. Huffman, M. Vignal, and B. Wilcox, PERC 2020 Proceedings, 222-227.

The divergence theorem is an important mathematical tool used in many areas of physics, most notably, electricity and magnetism. Students have nominally encountered the divergence…

B. Xue, R. Hazelton, P. Shaffer, and P. Heron, PERC 2016 Proceedings, 404-407.

Over the past several years, the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington has been developing tutorial worksheets for small-group sections for junior-level…

E. Campos, G. Zavala, K. Zuza, and J. Guisasola, PERC 2019 Proceedings, 81-86.

In electricity and magnetism (E&M) courses, students have difficulties understanding the concept of electric field. Because of its abstract nature, students can only understand the…