S. Kuchemann, S. Malone, P. Edelsbrunner, A. Lichtenberger, E. Stern, R. Schumacher, R. Brünken, A. Vaterlaus, and J. Kuhn, Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res., **17** (2), 020126 (2021).

Representational competence is essential for the acquisition of conceptual understanding in physics. It enables the interpretation of diagrams, graphs, and mathematical equations,…

A. Volfson, H. Eshach, and Y. Ben-Abu, Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res., **17** (2), 023105 (2021).

Science knowledge is reflected in mental models that students tend to form when dealing with science phenomena. One way to identify students’ mental models about scientific concepts…

M. Eblen-Zayas, E. Altermatt, L. Muller, J. Leamon, and S. Richard, PERC 2020 Proceedings, 137-142.

We present the results of a survey of 220 faculty members at selective liberal arts colleges who teach introductory STEM courses. The survey was designed to learn how these faculty…

J. Huffman, M. Vignal, and B. Wilcox, PERC 2020 Proceedings, 222-227.

The divergence theorem is an important mathematical tool used in many areas of physics, most notably, electricity and magnetism. Students have nominally encountered the divergence…