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written by Jessi L. Smith, Karyn Lewis, Lauren Hawthorne, and Sara D. Hodges
Feeling like one exerts more effort than others may influence women's feelings of belonging with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and impede their motivation. In Study 1, women STEM graduate students perceived they exerted more effort than peers to succeed. For women, but not men, this effort expenditure perception predicted a decreased sense of belonging, which in turn decreased motivation. Study 2 tested whether the male-dominated status of a field triggers such effort expectations. We created a fictional "eco-psychology" graduate program, which when depicted as male-dominated resulted in women expecting to exert relatively more effort and decreased their interest in pursuing the field. Study 3 found emphasizing effort as expected (and normal) to achieve success elevated women's feelings of belonging and future motivation. Results suggest effort expenditure perceptions are an indicator women use to assess their fit in STEM. Implications for enhancing women's participation in STEM are discussed.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 131-143
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Education - Basic Research
- Behavior
- Research Design & Methodology
= Evaluation
= Statistics
- Sample Population
= Gender
- Societal Issues
= Gender Issues
- Student Characteristics
= Affect
Other Sciences
- None
- Graduate/Professional
- Lower Undergraduate
- Upper Undergraduate
- Reference Material
= Research study
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© 2013 Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
DOI:
10.1177/0146167212468332
Keywords:
Expectancy Value Theory, STEM belonging, STEM identity, gender equity, gender imbalance, student motivation
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created July 7, 2022 by Lauren Bauman
Record Updated:
September 8, 2022 by Lauren Bauman
Last Update
when Cataloged:
February 21, 2013
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AIP Format
J. Smith, K. Lewis, L. Hawthorne, and S. Hodges, , Pers Soc Psychol 39 (2), 131 (2013), WWW Document, (https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212468332).
AJP/PRST-PER
J. Smith, K. Lewis, L. Hawthorne, and S. Hodges, When Trying Hard Isn’t Natural: Women’s Belonging With and Motivation for Male-Dominated STEM Fields As a Function of Effort Expenditure Concerns, Pers Soc Psychol 39 (2), 131 (2013), <https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212468332>.
APA Format
Smith, J., Lewis, K., Hawthorne, L., & Hodges, S. (2013, February 21). When Trying Hard Isn’t Natural: Women’s Belonging With and Motivation for Male-Dominated STEM Fields As a Function of Effort Expenditure Concerns. Pers Soc Psychol, 39(2), 131-143. Retrieved September 25, 2022, from https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212468332
Chicago Format
Smith, J, K. Lewis, L. Hawthorne, and S. Hodges. "When Trying Hard Isn’t Natural: Women’s Belonging With and Motivation for Male-Dominated STEM Fields As a Function of Effort Expenditure Concerns." Pers Soc Psychol. 39, no. 2, (February 21, 2013): 131-143, https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212468332 (accessed 25 September 2022).
MLA Format
Smith, Jessi L., Karyn Lewis, Lauren Hawthorne, and Sara D. Hodges. "When Trying Hard Isn’t Natural: Women’s Belonging With and Motivation for Male-Dominated STEM Fields As a Function of Effort Expenditure Concerns." Pers Soc Psychol 39.2 (2013): 131-143. 25 Sep. 2022 <https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212468332>.
BibTeX Export Format
@article{ Author = "Jessi L. Smith and Karyn Lewis and Lauren Hawthorne and Sara D. Hodges", Title = {When Trying Hard Isn’t Natural: Women’s Belonging With and Motivation for Male-Dominated STEM Fields As a Function of Effort Expenditure Concerns}, Journal = {Pers Soc Psychol}, Volume = {39}, Number = {2}, Pages = {131-143}, Month = {February}, Year = {2013} }
Refer Export Format

%A Jessi L. Smith %A Karyn Lewis %A Lauren Hawthorne %A Sara D. Hodges %T When Trying Hard Isn't Natural: Women's Belonging With and Motivation for Male-Dominated STEM Fields As a Function of Effort Expenditure Concerns %J Pers Soc Psychol %V 39 %N 2 %D February 21, 2013 %P 131-143 %U https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212468332 %O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Journal Article %A Smith, Jessi L. %A Lewis, Karyn %A Hawthorne, Lauren %A Hodges, Sara D. %D February 21, 2013 %T When Trying Hard Isn't Natural: Women's Belonging With and Motivation for Male-Dominated STEM Fields As a Function of Effort Expenditure Concerns %J Pers Soc Psychol %V 39 %N 2 %P 131-143 %8 February 21, 2013 %U https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212468332


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